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Unlocking autism’s secrets: Stanford researchers point fingers at a brain cell dark horse

Snyder smilingGeneticist Michael Snyder, PhD, has a thing for ‘omes.’ He’s studied genomes, transcriptomes, proteomes and microbiomes. Each term represents looking at something (DNA, RNA, proteins or microorganisms on a grand scale, throughout an entire organism). Most recently he’s been known for combining omics information to generate a dynamic picture of his own changing health over time (he termed the analysis a “integrative personal omics profile, or iPOP, but really, the siren call of “the Snyder-ome” is almost too great to resist).

Now he and postdoctoral scholar Jingjing Li, PhD, have turned their attention to the human “interactome,” a database that includes information about more than 69,000 protein interactions. They’ve used sophisticated algorithms to identify who in the brain is playing nicely with whom, and identified a particular group that seems to play an important role in the development of autism in a part of the brain called the corpus callosum. Importantly, the analysis points a finger at a new cell type in the brain — the oligodendrocytes. These serve as kind of a pit crew for the neurons, coating them in an insulating material to keep electrical signals between cells running smoothly. They’ve published their work today in Molecular Systems Biology.

As Snyder explained in our release:

This is our first glimpse of autism’s underlying biological framework, and it implicates a cell type and region of the brain that have not been extensively studied in this disease. Until now, we’ve suspected that autism could be the result of defects in the neurons themselves. Now it appears that the oligodendrocytes can contribute to the problem by inhibiting neuronal signaling through poor cellular differentiation and myelination.

Snyder, who also directs Stanford’s Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine, and Li hope that the finding will allow researchers to broaden their net to the corpus callosum, which helps the two halves of the brain communicate with one another. As psychiatrist and study co-author, Joachim Hallmayer, MD, commented:

Autism is an extremely heterogeneous disease. Many genes have been implicated, but environment also plays a role. This study suggests a possible way to subdivide patients into smaller, more homogenous populations based on which genes are mutated. Some of these may be very easy to treat, based on their mechanism, while others may be much more difficult. For those in this category, it’s possible we could one day find a way to train or improve the connection between the brain’s hemispheres.

It will be fascinating to see where this research goes next. In the meantime, here's hoping the New Year-ome treats you and yours well!

Previously: New imaging analysis reveals distinct features of the autistic brain, Omics' profiling coming soon to a doctor's office near you? and A conversation with autism activist and animal behavior expert Temple Grandin
Photo of Snyder by Steve Fisch

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