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Big data, Media, Stanford News

Stanford’s Big Data in Biomedicine chronicled in tweets, photos and videos

Stanford's Big Data in Biomedicine chronicled in tweets, photos and videos

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At this year’s Big Data in Biomedicine conference, a crowd of close to 500 people gathered at Stanford to discuss how advances in computational processing power and interconnectedness are changing medical research and the practice of medicine. Another 1,000 virtual attendees joined in the discussion via the live webcast, and several hundred participated in the conversation on social media.

We’ve captured a selection of the tweets, photos, videos and blog posts about the conference on the School of Medicine’s Storify page. On the page, you’ll find an interview with Philip Bourne, PhD, associate director for data science at the National Institutes of Health, talking about on the importance of “data to the biomedicine enterprise,” news stories on how big data holds the potential to improve everything from drug development to personalized medicine, and official conference photos and twitpics from attendees. You’ll also find a conference group photo and recap of the event written by my colleague Bruce Goldman.

For those of you missed the event, and for those who want to participate again, our next Big Data in Biomedicine conference has been scheduled for May 20-22, 2015.

Previously: Videos of Big Data in Biomedicine keynotes and panel discussions now available online, Rising to the challenge of harnessing big data to benefit patients and Discussing access and transparency of big data in government
Photo by Saul Bromberger

In the News, Neuroscience, Research, Stanford News

A spotlight on Stanford scientists’ use of deep-brain stimulation to eavesdrop on problem neural circuits

A spotlight on Stanford scientists' use of deep-brain stimulation to eavesdrop on problem neural circuits

Earlier this week, KTVU-TV aired a segment highlighting Stanford scientists’ ongoing research using deep-brain stimulation to control Parkinson’s patients’ tremors and record brain activity. A patient interviewed for the piece said the treatment “made a huge difference in my life” and called it “revolutionary.” More from the piece:

The new stimulator nicknamed “brain radio” is developed by Medtronic and tested by [Stanford neurologist Helen Bronte-Stewart, MD, and colleagues.]

“We can for the first time record the neural activity in the brain directly from the deep brain stimulator in somebody’s chest,” she said.

Despite decades of research, doctors have only a sketchy ideas of how the brain works, but now using Medtronic’s device they are for the first time opening a window into the human brain.

“I would think there will be developments that we don’t really know about right now that will come from some of the things we find out as we do this research,” said Bronte-Stewart.

Previously: Stanford conducts first U.S. implantation of deep-brain-stimulation device that monitors, records brain activity

Parenting, Public Health, Research, Sleep

The high price of interrupted sleep on your health

The high price of interrupted sleep on your health

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As the mother of a 10-month-old, I’m constantly answering the question: Is your son sleeping through the night? And, much to my dismay, I have to repeatedly answer, “No.” So I was interested, and considerably alarmed, to read about new findings showing that interrupted sleep could be as harmful to your physical health as a lack of sleep.

A Time article published today describes the study and the Tel Aviv University researchers’ results:

Students slept a full eight-hours one night followed by a night of interrupted sleep in which they received four phone calls directing them to complete a brief computer exercise before returning to bed. The morning after both nights, the volunteers completed tasks to measure their attention span and emotional state — results proved that just one night of interrupted sleep had negative effects on mood, attention span and cognitive ability.

[Lead researcher Avi Sadeh, PhD,] believes that several nights of fragmented sleep could have long-term negative consequences equivalent to missing out on slumber altogether. “We know that these effects accumulate and therefore the functional price new parents — who awaken three to ten times a night for months on end — pay for common infant sleep disturbance is enormous,” he said in a statement.

In addition to parents with young children, the findings are applicable to people in certain age groups that experience fragmented sleep, as well those with jobs where frequent night wakings are common.

Previously: Stanford expert: Students shouldn’t sacrifice sleep, What are the consequences of sleep deprivation? and Study: Parents may not be as sleep-deprived as they think
Photo by Christina Spicuzza

Parenting, Pregnancy, Technology, Women's Health

First-time moms often seek information online prior to first prenatal visit

First-time moms often seek information online prior to first prenatal visit

pregnant_laptopWhen I was eight weeks pregnant with my first child, I walked into my obstetrician’s office for my initial prenatal visit. I vividly remember being exhausted and sucking on watermelon lollipops for the entire two-hour appointment in an effort to relieve my morning sickness. While in the office, a nurse handed me a thick folder stuffed with various pamphlets and fact sheets on everything from nutrition to genetic testing – but much of the information reviewed wasn’t new to me. I’d already logged plenty of hours online reading about such topics.

So I was interested to read today about findings of a Penn State study showing that many other first-time moms also turn to “Dr. Google,” as well as social media, to find answers during the early weeks of their pregnancy. Women also continued turning to the Internet for information after their doctor visit and found traditional literature lacking. From a release on the study, which appears in the Journal of Medical Internet Research:

Following the women’s first visit to the obstetrician, many of them still turned to the internet—using both search engines and social media—to find answers to their questions, because they felt the literature the doctor’s office gave them was insufficient.

Many of the participants found the pamphlets and flyers that their doctors gave them, as well as the once-popular book What to Expect When You’re Expecting, outdated and preferred receiving information in different formats.

They would rather watch videos and use social media and pregnancy-tracking apps and websites.

“This research is important because we don’t have a very good handle on what tools pregnant women are using and how they engage with technology,” says [Jennifer Kraschnewski, MD]. “We have found that there is a real disconnect between what we’re providing in the office and what the patient wants.”

Noting the prevalence of misinformation online, Kraschnewski added, “We need to find sound resources on the Internet or develop our own sources” [to refer patients to].

Previously: Text message reminders shown effective in boosting flu shot rates among pregnant women and Examining the effectiveness of text4baby service
Photo by Adam Selwood

Chronic Disease, Stanford News, Videos

Gracefully saying goodbye: Isabel Stenzel Byrnes shares lessons to help cope with losing loved ones

Gracefully saying goodbye: Isabel Stenzel Byrnes shares lessons to help cope with losing loved ones

Isabel Stenzel Byrnes and her identical twin sister Anabel were diagnosed with cystic fibrosis when they were only three days old. At the time, physicians told their parents it would be unlikely that they would survive to see their 10th birthday. Working together, the sisters completed rigorous daily respiratory and digestive treatment to maintain their health, and in their 20s, they received double lung transplants at Stanford Hospital & Clinics. The dynamic duo become forceful organ donor advocates and authored a memoir, titled The Power of Two, that inspired an award-winning documentary.

In this powerful and moving TEDxStanford talk, Byrnes shares her lifelong experience of practicing the art of saying goodbye. Over the past 30 years, she has said goodbye to 123 friends, including her sister, who died of cancer last October. To help others cope with loss, she discusses the lessons about bereavement that she’s learned along the way and outlines the choices we have in saying goodbye.

Previously: A spotlight on TEDxStanford’s “awe-inspiring” and “deeply moving” talks, Film about twin sisters’ double lung transplants and battle against cystic fibrosis available online, Meet the filmmakers behind “The Power of Two” and Living- and thriving- with cystic fibrosis

Cardiovascular Medicine, Genetics, Research, Stanford News

Stanford patient on having her genome sequenced: “This is the right thing to do for our family”

Stanford patient on having her genome sequenced: "This is the right thing to do for our family"

genomicsImagine you were diagnosed, seemingly out of the blue, with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a condition that is caused by mutations in genes involved in the heart’s muscle cells and is the most common cause of sudden death in young people. If given the chance, would you have your entire genome analyzed to understand more about your genetics and the condition? That’s the decision Julie Prillinger faced and, in the end, she embraced the opportunity to untangle the mystery of her DNA. “This is the right thing to do for our family – and our friends and family have been very supportive,” she said in a Stanford Medicine News story.

As described in the piece, Prillinger’s genome was among the first to be sequenced through a pilot program of the new Clinical Genomics Service at Stanford Hospital & Clinics. The pilot phase of the service is limited to specific patient groups, including: children with mystery diseases, patients with unexplained hereditary cancer risk, patients with inherited cardiovascular or neurological disease and those with severe, unexplained drug reactions. More details about the service from the article:

Stanford’s service will apply a highly integrated approach that includes professional genetic counseling, the most advanced genome sequencing technology available, and expert interpretation by molecular genetic pathologists and other physicians with expertise in this emerging and complex field.

The new service will be tied closely to other diagnostic genetic testing programs currently offered at the two hospitals. Those programs, which include molecular genetic pathology, cytogenetics and clinical biochemical genetics, have an outstanding record of compliance with the extensive regulatory requirements for diagnostic genetic testing.

In addition to providing Prillinger and her family with crucial information about their personal health, the results could reveal undiscovered information related to the condition encoded in the human genome, which may enable the expansion of current tests.

Previously: Using genetic testing to enhance students’ knowledge of personalized medicine, Ask Stanford Med: Genetics chair answers your questions on genomics and personalized medicine and Direct-to-consumer genetic testing: A commentary

Cancer, Clinical Trials, Pediatrics, Public Health, Research

Researchers call for broader age limits for cancer trials to increase participation of teenage patients

Researchers call for broader age limits for cancer trials to increase participation of teenage patients

Findings published today in the Lancet Oncology highlight the need to increase the flexibility of age limits for cancer trials so that more teenage patients have access to experimental treatments. “Right now too many of our young patients are needlessly falling through the gap between paediatric and adult cancer trials,” said Lorna Fern, PhD, who led the study and co-ordinates research for the Teenage and Young Adult Clinical Studies Group of the UK-based National Cancer Research Institute.

In the study (subscription required), researchers examined strategies to boost participation of teens and young adults diagnosed with cancer in clinical trials. The study involved 68,275 patients, aged 0-59 years, who were diagnosed with cancer within a five-year window. According to a release:

The study showed [trials designed with broader age limits] led to a 13 per cent rise in 15-19 year old cancer patients taking part in clinical trials between 2005 and 2010 (from 24 to 37 per cent), and a five per cent rise in 20-24 year olds (from 13 to 18 per cent). Children under 14 taking part in trials rose by six per cent (from 52 to 58 per cent).

This rise was due to the increase in availability and access to trials for young people, increased awareness from healthcare professionals, patients and the public about research and importantly the opening of trials with broader age limits which allow older teenagers and young adults to enter trials.

Fern added, “By encouraging doctors to take into account the full age range of patients affected by individual types of cancer, we’ve shown that it’s possible to design trials that include teenage cancer patients and, importantly, that better match the underlying biology of the disease and the people affected.”

Previously: High rates of incarceration among black men could be skewing study results, Stanford researchers examine disparities in use of quality cancer centers and NPR explores the need for improving diversity in clinical trials

Behavioral Science, Health and Fitness, Obesity, Research, Stanford News

The behavioral consequences of overindulgence

The behavioral consequences of overindulgence

sundae_070714In today’s world of Big Gulps and supersized portions, one giant question looms: How does overindulgence affect our pleasure of food?

To provide an answer, Baba Shiv, MBA, PhD, a professor at the Stanford Graduate School of Business, and colleagues performed a series of experiments investigating how your feeling of satiety impacts the likelihood that you’ll soon eat the same food again. Their findings offer insights for both individuals that have trouble eating and drinking in moderation and those who are picky eaters.

During the first study, students tried three different flavors of crackers, selected their favorite and then were instructed to eat a specific number. They rated their enjoyment after eating each one. According to a business school release:

The students who ate the larger portion (15 crackers) reported significantly lower enjoyment than those who ate the smaller portion (3 crackers).

These findings replicate previous ones on “sensory-specific satiety”: Each bit of the same food is less pleasant than the one before it. Thus, the bigger the portion, the less enjoyment you get out of the last few bites.

More importantly, participants’ enjoyment of the last cracker (manipulated by portion size) seemed to influence how soon the students wanted to eat the crackers again: Participants who ate a small portion typically opted to receive a giveaway box of [crackers] sooner than did participants who ate the larger portion.

In another study exploring behaviors of finicky eaters, study authors gave one group of participants sips of juice and two crackers to eat. A second group was also given the juice and crackers, but had the added distractor task of counting “e’s” in a series of passages before drinking more juice. Results showed that the crackers partially reset their satiety level, allowing students to find the second sip of juice as enjoyable as the first. Shiv notes in the release how these findings could be useful for parents trying to get their little ones to eat more veggies:

Parents of picky eaters could keep this lesson to heart, says Shiv. Rather than insisting that your child eat every last bite of broccoli, introduce another taste in the middle of the serving of broccoli, to reset levels of satiety. Next time there’s broccoli on the plate, your youngster may be more willing to eat it again.

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Scope Announcements

Happy Fourth of July from Stanford Medicine

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Happy Fourth of July! Our office is closed in honor of the holiday, and we’ll resume posting Monday.

Photo by Ryan

Cancer, Research, Stanford News

Tool to identify the origin of certain types of cancer could be a “boon to doctors prescribing therapies”

Tool to identify the origin of certain types of cancer could be a "boon to doctors prescribing therapies"

A team of Stanford scientists has developed a tool to identify the biological signatures in cancer cells that can be traced back to the original cancer gene. As noted today in a Stanford Report story, the tool could help unravel the secrets of cancer and be “a boon to doctors prescribing therapies for their patients.”

For the study, researchers examined an oncogene that is related to lymphoma and responsible for roughly 50 percent of all human cancers. An oncogene is a gene that can cause a normal cell to become cancerous when mutated, or be expressed at abnormally high levels. The team hoped to find a biological signature that would trace the mutating cancer cells back to the original oncogene. More from the article about the work:

Using an elegant statistical method from Robert Tibshirani, [PhD,] professor of health research and policy (biostatitstics) and of biostatistics, the team was able to identify not just one but 86 lipids that can be traced back to the oncogene.

“It’s not just diagnostic,” [postdoctoral researcher Livia Eberlin, PhD,] said. “It gives extra information that could be prognostic.”

Depending on the bio-signature of the cancer cells, physicians will have a better idea of the aggressiveness of a patient’s cancer. In the future, this research may lead to a better knowledge of cancer in general.

“The next step,” said [Dean Felsher, MD, PhD,] professor of medicine (oncology) and of pathology, one of the team members from Stanford School of Medicine, “is to use this as a way to figure out the causal mechanism.” Though the connection between the cancer cells and their origin is clear, the actual cause of cancer – the biological trigger that pushes cancer to progress – is still mysterious.

The study is scheduled to be published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Previously: Smoking gun or hit-and-run? How oncogenes make good cells go bad, Cellular culprit identified for invasive bladder cancer, according to Stanford study and Blood will tell: In Stanford study, tiny bits of circulating tumor DNA betray hidden cancers

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