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Mental Health, Pregnancy, Research, Women's Health

Study shows mothers receiving fertility treatments may have an elevated risk of depression

Study shows mothers receiving fertility treatments may have an elevated risk of depression

5088785288_9f7a23f17a_zAn estimated one in four couples in developing countries encounter difficulties trying to conceive. In the United States, more than 7 million women have undergone fertility treatments and, as a result, millions of babies have been born through in-vitro fertilization.

While many may assume that failed fertility treatments would increase a woman’s risk of depression more than successful attempts that resulted in a live birth, research recently published in the journal ACTA Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica shows that the opposite may be true.

In the study, researchers from the University of Copenhagen analyzed data on 41,000 Danish women who had undergone fertility treatments. PsychCentral reports that “investigators discovered women who give birth after receiving fertility treatment are five times more likely to develop depression compared to women who don’t give birth.”

Lead author Camilla Sandal Sejbaek, PhD, discusses the results in the story:

The new results are surprising because we had assumed it was actually quite the opposite. However, our study clearly shows that women who become mothers following fertility treatment have an increased risk of developing depression in the first six weeks after birth compared to women who did not have a child.

Our study has not looked at why the depression occurs, but other studies indicate that it could be caused by hormonal changes or mental factors, but we cannot say for sure. We did not find any correlation between the number of fertility treatments and the subsequent risk of depression.

Previously: Stanford-developed fertility treatment deemed a “top medical breakthrough” of the year, Ask Stanford Med: Expert in reproductive medicine responds to questions on infertility, Image of the Week: Baby born after mom receives Stanford-developed fertility treatment and NIH study suggests progestin in infertility treatment for women with PCOS may be counterproductive
Photo by Big D2112

Neuroscience, Research

Exploring the role of prion-like proteins in memory disorders

Exploring the role of prion-like proteins in memory disorders

Over on the Mind the Brain blog, Stanford psychiatrist Shaili Jain, MD, discusses disorders of memory, including post-traumatic stress disorder and Alzheimer’s, with Nobel Laureate Eric Kandel, MD.

Ongoing research conducted by Kandel has helped scientists better understand the basic molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. His latest study showed how prion-like proteins, which are similar to the prions behind bovine spongiform encephalopathy and Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, are key for maintaining long-term memories in mice – and likely other mammals.

In Jain’s conversation with Kandel, she asks him how these new findings may translate clinically and impact patients diagnosed with memory disorders. He responds:

We are already there in some areas. We have far to go in other areas, but I will give you an example. We have a pretty good understanding of Alzheimer’s disease. We know the toxicity of beta amyloid. We do not know why the drugs that are directed against beta amyloid do not work, but one possibility that is being seriously entertained is that by the time the patient comes to see a physician, they have had the disease for ten years. That is a very long time and you lose a lot of nerve cells in ten years, and drugs do not bring nerve cells back once they are dead.

We need to diagnose the disease earlier and a major effort now, in Alzheimer’s research, is early diagnosis. Imaging, cerebral spinal fluid, genetic warning signals etc.

The other thing is it has proven possible to define an independent disorder, age related memory loss. Recent work from our lab, and that of Scott Small, has shown there is a separate entity, independent of AD, called Age Related Memory Loss. We have identified the molecular pathways involved in that disorder. We have treatments that work very effectively in animals. I think the time is going to come soon when these will be tried in people.

All of these came out from a basic science and work with experimental animals. So even though we are in the very early stage of understanding the really complex functions of the brain, we are making progress and all of this will hopefully have some therapeutic impact.

Previously: Memory of everyday events may be compromised by sleep apnea, Malfunctioning glia – brain cells that aren’t nerve cells – may contribute big time to ALS and other neurological disorders and The state of Alzheimer’s research: A conversation with Stanford neurologist Michael Greicius

Medicine and Literature, Stanford News

Charlotte Jacobs on finding “snippets during every day” to balance careers in medicine and literature

Charlotte Jacobs on finding "snippets during every day" to balance careers in medicine and literature

Stanford oncologist Charlotte Jacobs, MD, loved reading biographies as a child. But it wasn’t until years later, while on sabbatical at Stanford, that she decided to take a creative writing course and begin cultivating a second career as a biographer.

Her first biography, Henry Kaplan and the Story of Hodgkin’s Disease, was published in 2010 and chronicled the life and work of one of the foremost physician-scientists in the history of cancer medicine. Her latest book, Jonas Salk: A LIFE, tells the remarkable story of the man who conquered polio. The New York Times called Jacobs latest biography, “science writing at its best.”

In a recently published Q&A on the Department of Medicine website, Jacobs discusses how she balances her roles as mother, physician and author. “I could find snippets during every day to write. Even today I find that to be the case,” she says.

On the topic of being able to meld her doctor life with her writer life, Jacobs says:

I don’t meld the two at all. When I’m writing or doing research on one of my books, I’m totally focused on that. And when I’m with my patients, I’m totally focused on them. One thing I learned from Henry Kaplan, who had a whirlwind of activity surrounding him, was that when he was in the exam room, the patient was his only concern.

“I do think my background in science helped me be a better writer, though. I chose subjects who were in the field of science or medicine because that is what I know. One of the hardest tasks was interpreting my subjects’ work to the general public. I used to think if my next-door neighbor, who was a smart housewife, couldn’t understand and enjoy the books, I had failed.

“Knowing academic medicine also helped. Jonas Salk ran into major political hurdles, and he was not treated kindly—some of which was his own doing. Having spent my entire career in academic medicine, I could understand the world in which he worked.

Previously: Stanford doctor-author brings historic figure Jonas Salk to lifePrescribing a story? Medicine meets literature in “narrative medicine”, Literature and medicine at life’s end, Poetry’s connection to medicine and the body and More than medicine: Stanford medical students embrace their artistic passions through unique program

Cancer, Health and Fitness, Pediatrics, Public Health, Research, Women's Health

Examining the long-term health benefits for women of exercise in adolescence

Examining the long-term health benefits for women of exercise in adolescence

soccer_8.4.15Sometime around the age of five, I distinctly remember my mother telling me, “You have to play a sport. You can pick any sport you want, but you have to play a sport.” I recall this encounter vividly because I really, really didn’t want to play sports. At the time, I was the “everything-has-to-be-pink, Barbie-doll-playing, glitter-loving” type. But I picked a sport, soccer, and surprisingly stuck with it through college.

Fast forward to today, when I came across new research touting the health benefits of exercise during adolescence and was compelled to send a “Thanks, mom” text for her fitness mandate. The findings, which were recently published in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, show that women who regularly exercised as teenagers had a decreased risk of dying from cancer, cardiovascular disease and other causes during middle-age and later in life.

The study was conducted by Vanderbilt University Medical Center and the Shanghai Cancer Institute and involved the analysis of data from the Shanghai Women’s Health Study, a large ongoing prospective cohort study of 74,941 Chinese women ages 40 to 70.

Researchers defined regular exercise as occurring a minimum of once a week for three consecutive months. Lead author Sarah Nechuta, PhD, said in a release, “In women, adolescent exercise participation, regardless of adult exercise, was associated with reduced risk of cancer and all-cause mortality.”

More details about the study results:

Investigators found that participation in exercise both during adolescence and recently as an adult was significantly associated with a 20 percent reduced risk of death from all causes, 17 percent for cardiovascular disease and 13 percent for cancer.

While there have been several studies of the role of weight gain and obesity on overall mortality later in life, the authors believe this is the first cohort study of the impact of exercise during adolescence on later cause-specific and all-cause mortality among women.

The authors note that an important next step is to evaluate the role of adolescent exercise in the incidence of major chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and major cancers, which will also help provide more insight into the mechanisms of disease.

Previously: Study finds teens who play two sports show notably lower obesity rates, Exercise may lower women’s risk of dementia later in life, How physical activity influences health and Stanford pediatrician discusses developing effective programs to curtail childhood obesity
Photo by Ole Olson

Big data, BigDataMed15, Precision health, Public Health, Research, Videos

How the FDA is promoting data sharing and transparency to support innovations in public health

How the FDA is promoting data sharing and transparency to support innovations in public health

Keynote talks and presentations from the 2015 Big Data in Biomedicine conference at Stanford are now available on the Stanford YouTube channel. To continue the discussion of how big data can be harnessed to improve the practice of medicine and enhance human health, we’re featuring a selection of the videos on Scope.

At the 2014 Big Data in Biomedicine conference, Taha Kass-Hout, MD, chief health informatics officer for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, announced that the federal agency was launching OpenFDA, a scalable search and big-data analytics platform. In May, he returned to the Big Data in Biomedicine stage to offer an update on the initiative and discuss how the FDA is continuing to foster access and transparency of big data in government.

During his talk, Kass-Hout shared some eye-popping statistics about the information available through OpenFDA. The platform houses close to 70,000 product labels for pharmaceuticals; nearly four million reports on adverse events or malfunctions of medical devices; 41,000 records on recalls of foods, pharmaceuticals or devices and over four and a half million reports of adverse events or side-effects of drugs.

He outlined future plans to build a similar public, cloud-based platform to compliment the Obama Administration’s Precision Medicine Initiative. Watch the full talk to learn more about these exciting efforts to unlock the rapidly growing reservoir of biomedical data and spur innovation in public health.

Previously: A look at the MyHeart Counts app and the potential of mobile technologies to improve human health, Discussing patient participation in medical research: “We had to take this into our own hands,” A look at aging and longevity in this “unprecedented” time in history, Mining Twitter to identify cases of foodborne illness and Discussing access and transparency of big data in government

Big data, BigDataMed15, Cardiovascular Medicine, Medical Apps, Stanford News, Videos

A look at the MyHeart Counts app and the potential of mobile technologies to improve human health

A look at the MyHeart Counts app and the potential of mobile technologies to improve human health

Keynote talks and presentations from the 2015 Big Data in Biomedicine conference at Stanford are now available on the Stanford YouTube channel. To continue the discussion of how big data can be harnessed to improve the practice of medicine and enhance human health, we’re featuring a selection of the videos on Scope.

At last count, the number of iPhone owners who have downloaded the MyHeart Counts app and consented to participate in a large-scale, human heart study had reached 40,000. The first-of-its-kind mobile app was designed by Stanford Medicine cardiologists as a way for users to learn about their heart health while simultaneously helping advance the field of cardiovascular medicine.

Built on Apple’s ResearchKit framework, the app leverages the iPhone’s built-in motion sensors to collect data on physical activity and other cardiac risk factors for a research study. The MyHeart Counts study also draws on the strength of Stanford Medicine’s Biomedical Data Science Initiative.

At the 2015 Big Data in Biomedicine conference, Euan Ashley, MD, a cardiologist at Stanford and co-investigator for the MyHeart Counts study, shared some preliminary findings with the audience. Check out the full talk to learn more about how the app is helping researchers better understand Americans’ health habits and what states have the happiest, most physically active and well-rested residents.

Previously: On the move: Big Data in Biomedicine goes mobile with discussion on mHealth, MyHeart Counts shows that smartphones are catching on as new research tool, Lights, camera, action: Stanford cardiologist discusses MyHeart Counts on ABC’s Nightline, MyHeart Counts app debuts with a splash and Stanford launches iPhone app to study heart health.

Global Health, Medical Education

A behind the scenes look at the Stanford-ABC News Fellowship in Media and Global Health

A behind the scenes look at the Stanford-ABC News Fellowship in Media and Global Health

Since arriving at Stanford, third-year medical student Michael Nedelman has pursued his passion for film by producing a number of documentaries, including projects about LGBT veterans experiences of trauma and recovery and health-care access in post-typhoon Philippines. This year, he is embarking on a new journey as the 2015-2016 Stanford-ABC News Global Health Media Fellow where he will explore how multiple media platforms can have a significant impact on global health work.

Nedelman is chronicling his fellowship experience on his blog. Currently, he is working for the World Health Organization (WHO) in Delhi as part of team responsible for the organization’s media output for the Southeast Asia region. His first entry focuses on the role of media at the WHO and includes a podcast with Vismita Gupta-Smith, a public information and advocacy officer at the WHO in Southeast Asia. Listen to their full conversation above.

Previously: After Haiyan: Stanford med student makes film about post-typhoon Philippines, Stanford Storytellers: Medical students write a children’s book to comfort and educate and Stanford med student discusses his documentary on LGBT vets’ health

Health and Fitness, Nutrition, Obesity, Research

Can food mentions in newspapers predict national obesity rates?

Can food mentions in newspapers predict national obesity rates?

New_York_TimesFood words trending in today’s newspapers could help predict a country’s obesity rates in three years, according to findings recently published in the journal BMC Public Health. 

In the study, researchers examined whether media mentions of food predate obesity prevalence by analyzing mentions of foods in New York Times and London Times articles over the past 50 years. Using this data, they statistically correlated it with each country’s annual Body Mass Index, or BMI. Brennan Davis, PhD, lead author of the study and an associate professor of marketing at California Polytechnic State University, said in a release that results showed:

The more sweet snacks are mentioned and the fewer fruits and vegetables that are mentioned in your newspaper, the fatter your country’s population is going to be in 3 years, according to trends we found from the past fifty years … But the less often they’re mentioned and the more vegetables are mentioned, the skinnier the public will be.

Researchers say the research could help public health officials better understand the effectiveness of current obesity interventions.

Previously: Adventurous eaters more likely to be healthy, new study shows, Want kids to eat their veggies? Researchers suggest labeling foods with snazzy names, Can edible “stop signs” revive portion control and curb overeating? and Can dish color influence how much you eat?
Photo by Jaysin Trevino

Big data, BigDataMed15, Chronic Disease, Videos

Discussing patient participation in medical research: “We had to take this into our own hands”

Discussing patient participation in medical research: "We had to take this into our own hands"

Keynote talks and presentations from the 2015 Big Data in Biomedicine conference at Stanford are now available on the Stanford YouTube channel. To continue the discussion of how big data can be harnessed to improve the practice of medicine and enhance human health, we’re featuring a selection of the videos on Scope.

Two days before Christmas in 1994, Sharon Terry’s two young children were diagnosed with pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a rare condition that causes calcium and other minerals to be deposited in the body’s tissue. As Terry told the audience at the 2015 Big Data in Biomedicine conference, “[My husband and I] quickly learned that we, in fact, had to take this into our own hands, like many parents have done before us and many parents have done after us.” Despite not having a science background, Terry co-discovered the gene associated with PXE and created a diagnostic test for the disease; over the years, she has conducted clinical trials and authored 140 peer-reviewed papers, of which 30 are PXE clinical studies.

In the above video, Terry recounts the inspiring journey of how she and her husband worked for two decades with scientists worldwide to advance research on PXE in hopes of developing therapeutic treatments. She also explains her current work as president and CEO of Genetic Alliance to help individuals, families and communities participate in scientific research and promote the sharing of health data to improve health.

Previously: A look at aging and longevity in this “unprecedented” time in history, Parents turn to data after son is diagnosed with ultra-rare disease, Nobel Laureate Michael Levitt explains why “biology is information rich” at Big Data in Biomedicine, At Big Data in Biomedicine, Stanford’s Lloyd Minor focuses on precision health and  Experts at Big Data in Biomedicine: Bigger, better datasets and technology will benefit patients

Neuroscience, Stanford News, Videos

Are decisions driven by subconscious desires or shaped by conscious goals?

Are decisions driven by subconscious desires or shaped by conscious goals?

Throughout our lives, we often encounter perplexing situations involving other individuals or read in the news about someone’s seemingly irrational decision and say to ourselves: What were they thinking? In this Stanford+Connects video, Bill Newsome, PhD, director of the Stanford Neurosciences Institute, and his wife Brie Linkenhoker, PhD, a neuroscientists-turned-strategist who directs Worldview Stanford, examine the process of decision making and the role of impulses and self-control. Watch the full talk to learn more about the mechanisms driving us to make decisions.

Previously: Exploring the science of decision making and Exploring the intelligence-gathering and decision-making processes of infants

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