Stanford med student/HHMI fellow investigates bacteriophage therapy as an alternative to antibiotics
on June 3rd, 2015 1 Comment
Second-year medical student Eric Trac isn’t one to shy away from a challenge. Trac’s family is from Vietnam and he didn’t speak much English as a child, but Trac and his mother overcame this hurdle by practicing English and studying together every night until the early morning hours so he could do well at school. Now, just 12 years later, Trac is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) fellow taking on a new kind of challenge: investigating an alternative to antibiotics.
Many people think that antibiotics are the only way to kill bacteria, but this isn’t true. “Before we used antibiotics, we used bacteriophages,” Trac said. “Just like viruses attack people, bacteriophages attack bacteria. In other words, bacteria can get sick as well.”
Bacteriophages have been used since the early 1900s in countries like France, Poland and the U.S. to treat diseases such as cholera and dysentery. But interest in bacteriophage therapy, and its use, declined in the West after antibiotics were discovered in the 1920s. Now that bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics, researchers in the West are taking interest in the decades of bacteriophage research that continued in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union long after antibiotics became popular elsewhere. Unfortunately, many of these studies don’t meet the scientific standards (e.g., double blind studies, experimental controls) that Western drug research requires.
So, for his year-long HHMI project, Trac and his mentors, bioengineer and physicist Stephen Quake, PhD, and pediatric pulmonary expert David Cornfield, MD, will test bacteriophage therapy — with the required scientific protocols — to see if it could be a viable, and safe alternative to antibiotics. His project will focus on two common bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, that can cause life-threatening infections, especially in people with cystic fibrosis. “The need for alternative ways to kill these two bacteria is great,” Trac said.