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Health and Fitness

Behavioral Science, Health and Fitness, Obesity, Public Health, Sleep

How insufficient sleep can lead to weight gain

How insufficient sleep can lead to weight gain

SnackNap

I don’t think I’ve ever met a person who hates sleep and can’t wait to get less of it. Yet, even though most people want more sleep and know it’s important for their health, few people get as much shut-eye as they need. If you’re one of the many who needs a bit more motivation to get to bed earlier, a recent BeWell@Stanford article on how sleep can affect your weight may do the trick.

In the Q&A, sleep expert Emmanuel Mignot, MD, PhD, director of the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine, explains why and how insufficient sleep can increase your risk of weight gain:

It is very clear that if you’re not sleeping enough, you’re putting yourself at risk for increasing your weight.  If you sleep less than six hours a night, you’re likely to have a higher BMI (body mass index). Longitudinal data — and the evidence is quite strong — shows that if you sleep more over time, you’ll lower your BMI, which correlates with weight reduction.

In the first centuries of human life on earth, if humans weren’t sleeping they were probably looking for food or fleeing a predator. Not sleeping enough was a sign that we were in danger or that we were under stress. When we are sleep deprived, we feel hungry. Data indicates that if you sleep less, you eat more, and it disrupts your hormones. This problem is magnified in today’s world because food is too available!

Mignot also discusses the top reasons why people sleep so little, the importance of naps, and how being sleep-deprived skews our perception of doing and performing well. “[W]e have to make sure we don’t burn the candle at both ends, Mignot said. “Sleeping brings creativity, productivity and the ability to perform at a higher level.”

The piece is a quick, and informative, read.

Previously: Exploring the history and study of sleep with Stanford’s William Dement“Father of Sleep Medicine” talks with CNN about what happens when we don’t sleep wellStanford doc gives teens a crash course on the dangers of sleep deprivation, Narcoleptic Chihuahua joins Stanford sleep researcher’s family and More evidence linking sleep deprivation and obesity
Photo by Goodiez

Events, Health and Fitness, Nutrition, Obesity, Stanford News, Women's Health

Women’s health expert: When it comes to prevention, diet and exercise are key

Women's health expert: When it comes to prevention, diet and exercise are key

16262076932_96f8309b43_zThis Monday was the sixth annual Stanford Women’s Health Forum, hosted by Stanford’s Women and Sex Differences in Medicine center (WSDM), and I was happy to have been present for the lively talks. The forum focused on prevention, and the keynote, delivered by Marcia Stefanick, PhD, professor of obstetrics and gynecology and WSDM director, highlighted physical activity and weight management as the key preventative actions for women to take.

High blood pressure remains the number one preventable cause of death in women, with physical inactivity and high BMI, both of which contribute to high blood pressure, in third and fourth place. (For the curious readers, smoking comes in second.) Because prevention requires changes in behavior, behavior was what Stefanick focused on. Rather than reinforcing many women’s feelings of embarrassment about their weight, she said, providers should help women feel that they can do something about it.

Healthier behaviors must include diet and exercise. Both fatness and low fitness cause higher mortality; realistic expectations about how to change both should factor into care. Stefanick emphasized that weight loss should be slow: 10 percent of one’s body weight baseline over six months, or one pound per week for moderately overweight people, and no more than two pounds per week. And we need to stop being so sedentary, Stefanick exclaimed. The classic principles of exercise apply – gradually increase the frequency, intensity, and/or duration of exertion. Adults should be getting at least two and a half hours of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity per week, in addition to doing muscle-strengthening activities at least twice a week, the conference flyer read.

However, citing the problems of eating disorders and older women losing weight without trying, Stefanick stressed that “weight management is a spectrum; there are extremes at both ends.” In describing variations on mesomorphic, endomorphic, and ectomorphic body types, she stated that “we don’t know what the optimal body type is.” It probably varies for each person.

Something I found particularly interesting was Stefanick’s description of gynoid vs android fat distribution patterns (which I learned as “pear” and “apple” body shapes, respectively). Gynoid distribution around the hips, thighs, and butt is more common in women, and includes more subcutaneous fat, while in android distribution, which is more common in men, fat collects around the belly and chest and is actually dispersed among the organs. Such intra-abdominal fat is more damaging to health, as it affects the liver and lipid profile and can cause heart disease, but it’s also much easier to get rid of through exercise (which is one reason men overall have less trouble losing weight than women).

In the spirit of more personalized care, Stefanick also discussed how recommended weight changes during pregnancy should vary according to the person’s prenatal BMI. Someone underweight could gain up to 40 pounds and be healthy, she pointed out, while obese people might actually lose weight during pregnancy for optimal mother-baby health.

Previously: Why it’s critical to study the impact of gender differences on diseases and treatmentsWhen it comes to weight loss, maintaining a diet is more important than diet typeApple- or pear-shaped: Which is better for cancer prevention?A call to advance research on women’s health issues and To meet weight loss goals, start exercise and healthy eating programs at the same time
Photo by Mikaku

Events, Health and Fitness, Medicine and Society, Stanford News

Stanford Medicine’s community open house happening on May 16

Stanford Medicine's community open house happening on May 16

health matters logo 15

Mark your calendar for Health Matters, Stanford Medicine’s community open house, being held this year on Saturday, May 16. There will be wellness dogs and a helicopter, chair massages, tasty food and plenty of informative presentations on topics ranging from breast cancer and dementia to exercise and diet.

And, it’s all free (except for the tasty food).

A few of the presentations include:

  • “Dispelling the myths: Realistic strategies for maintaining cognitive health and preventing dementia” with Frank Longo, MD, PhD
  • “Tips for safe workouts: How to stay healthy and injury-free” with Jason Dragoo, MD
  • “Anti-inflammatory foods” with Kylie Chen, RD
  • “Approaching the second half of life with health and vitality: The latest research on longevity and aging” with Anne Brunet, PhD
  • “Teen mental health and your family — Practical information and insights”, a panel presentation

Throughout the day, the Life Flight helicopter is expected to be available, as will be the canine stars of the Pet-Assisted Wellness (PAWs) program. The pavilion will also feature a look at the MyHeart Counts heart-health app, cooking demonstrations, emergency preparation information and Stanford experts available to answer your health questions.

The event will be held at the Li Ka Shing Center for Learning and Knowledge. If certain talks particularly strike your fancy, register here to reserve a space. Some events, such as the medical school session for high school students, will or have already filled up.

Previously: Stanford Medicine to open its doors to community during Health Matters event, An ounce of action is worth a ton of theory: Med student encourages community engagement and Stanford Medicine community gathers for Health Matters event

Health and Fitness, In the News, Sleep, Videos

“Father of Sleep Medicine” talks with CNN about what happens when we don’t sleep well

"Father of Sleep Medicine" talks with CNN about what happens when we don't sleep well

Dement - smallA good night’s sleep is often the first thing to go when we have an important work deadline or health issue. I know this from firsthand (and recent!) experience: I let a foot injury kept me up until 4 a.m. today even though I know that cheating sleep – or getting a poor night of sleep – is bad for my health.

But is skimping out on sleep now and again really that bad? As Chief Medical Correspondent Sanjay Gupta, MD, and Stanford sleep expert William Dement, MD, PhD, explain in a recent CNN feature: yes. When we rest, our bodies go to work, Gupta explains: “When your head hits the pillow, your body doesn’t shut down. It uses that time to heal tissue, strengthen memory, even grow.”

Dement, who founded the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine in the 1970s and has devoted his career to understanding sleep, has lots of experience with patients who miss out on these benefits because they don’t sleep well – due to obstructive sleep apnea. (The disorder, he says, affects 24 percent of adult males in the U.S.) In the piece, he and Gupta discuss the risk factors, such as excess weight and large tonsils, linked to sleep apnea and what can be done to alleviate the problem.

If you have a few minutes, this video is worth a watch. Dement makes his first appearance at the 2.5-minute mark.

Previously: Stanford doc gives teens a crash course on the dangers of sleep deprivationWilliam Dement: Stanford Medicine’s “Sandman”Stanford docs discuss all things sleep, Why untreated sleep apnea may cause more harm to your health than feeling fatigued and What are the consequences of sleep deprivation?
Photo, which originally appeared in Stanford Medicine, by Lenny Gonzalez

Autoimmune Disease, Chronic Disease, Health and Fitness, Nutrition, Obesity, Research

Study clarifies link between dieting, exercise and reduced inflammation

Study clarifies link between dieting, exercise and reduced inflammation

4503404991_13da58b6e6_bIf you’ve ever wondered how dieting and exercise reduce inflammation, read on. According to new research, a compound that our bodies crank out when energy supplies are low could be the link between diet and exercise, and reduced swelling in the body.

When diet, fasting and exercise starve the body for calories, the body increases production of a compound called beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB). This compound has long been known as an alternate source of energy; the new research suggests that BHB can also block the inflammatory response.

In their study, published this week in Nature Medicine online (subscription required), a team of scientists co-led by Yun-Hee Youm and Kim Yen Nguyen at the Yale School of Medicine, discovered that the compound BHB reduces swelling in the body by inactivating a group of proteins, called the inflammasome, that drive the inflammatory response.

The research team used human immune cells and mice to explore the effects of BHB in the body. They found that mice given BHB directly, and mice fed a low-carbohydrate diet (that prompted their bodies to synthesize their own BHB), both benefited from reduced inflammation.

These results are noteworthy because a better understanding of the mechanism that links diet, exercise and inflammation could help scientists develop more effective treatments for inflammatory disorders such as Type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease.

Previously: Newly identified type-2 diabetes gene’s odds of being a false finding equal one in 1 followed by 19 zeroesImproving your health using herbs and spices, Exercise may alleviate symptoms of arthritis regardless of weight loss, Study points to inflammation as cause of plaque buildup in heart vessels and Examining the role of exercise in managing and preventing diabetes
Via ScienceDaily
Photo by Dave Nakayama

Cardiovascular Medicine, Health and Fitness, Public Health, Research, Women's Health

Even moderate exercise appears to provide heart-health benefits to middle-aged women

Even moderate exercise appears to provide heart-health benefits to middle-aged women

woman on bike

It’s no secret that exercise offers a plethora of health benefits; tons of research has established that. But I was still heartened to read about a new study showing that physically active middle-aged women had lower risks of heart disease, stroke and blood clots than did their inactive counterparts. (I read about the work on my phone as I walked home from a barre class last night, which made me feel especially happy about having had just worked out.)

Researchers from University of Oxford looked at data from 1.1 million women in the United Kingdom, who were followed for an average of nine years. From an American Heart Association release:

In the study:

  • Women who performed strenuous physical activity— enough to cause sweating or a faster heart beat — two to three times per week were about 20 percent less likely to develop heart disease, strokes or blood clots compared to participants who reported little or no activity.
  • Among active women, there was little evidence of further risk reductions with more frequent activity.

Physical activities associated with reduced risk included walking, gardening, and cycling.

Lead author Miranda Armstrong, MPhil, PhD, commented that “inactive middle-aged women should try to do some activity regularly,” but then noted that the results suggest that “to prevent heart disease, stroke and blood clots, our results suggest that women don’t need to do very frequent activity.” That’s good news, ladies!

The study appears in the journal Circulation.

Previously: Lack of exercise shown to have largest impact on heart disease risk for women over 30, Exercise is valuable in preventing sedentary death, Study shows regular physical activity, even modest amounts, can add years to your life, CDC report shows exercise becoming a popular prescription among doctors and Brisk walking reduces stroke risk among women
Image by Thomas Hawk

Health and Fitness, Nutrition, Public Health

Why establishing a health baseline is a “critical starting point for achieving future health goals”

Why establishing a health baseline is a "critical starting point for achieving future health goals"

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Raise your hand if you want to be more successful at achieving health goals, such as losing weight or lowering your cholesterol levels, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Perhaps it’s time to consider creating a health baseline. “A health-care baseline is essentially where you are “at” on the broad, complex spectrum of physical, mental and emotional health,” explains Mary James, MD, an internal medicine physician at Stanford. “This can be a critical starting point for achieving future health goals.”

On Thursday, James will deliver an in-depth talk on the benefits of partnering with your primary care provider to establish a health baseline as part of the Stanford Health Library lecture series. Those unable to attend can watch the presentation online here.

In anticipation of the event, I contacted James to learn more about why its important to have a basis for comparison, beyond the ever-fluctuating number on your bathroom scale or if you’re able to fit into your skinny jeans, to use in measuring progress in meeting your health goals. Below she discusses how assessing the state of your health now can pay off in a longer, more active life in the future.

What is a health baseline?

Your baseline has two basic components: existing illness and potential future illness. Your current baseline has been shaped by your medical, social and family history and is constantly being influenced by common factors in everyday life. Although some components of your healthcare baseline are more modifiable than others, it is important to have an accurate understanding of your current health status.

Why is it important to determine your personal health baseline?

You may be thinking, “I’m healthy – I take no medications and never go to the doctor. Why should I start now?” There are two fundamental components to good health. They are: appropriate treatment for current illness and appropriate preventative care to reduce health decline in the future. While most people actively seek care for the former, we often forget about the latter. Although the data is mixed on whether “routine check ups” are beneficial, there is strong evidence behind many of the preventative maneuvers that are typically discussed and ordered at these visits. Taking appropriate preventative health-care steps can help you avoid the need for prescription medications, hospitalizations and procedures and can help ensure a longer, healthier life.

How can establishing a health baseline help you be more successful in reaching personal wellness goals?

Many wellness goals start with changes in diet and exercise. Your primary care provider can help determine how to start making these changes in a safe, effective manner. Are there exercises you should avoid due to chronic back pain? Is it okay to start running if you have high blood pressure? Is it safe for you to start a vegan diet? What is a safe amount of weight to lose?

Wellness also includes mental and emotional health. Your primary provider can help determine what treatment is most appropriate for common conditions such as depression and anxiety. Maybe you’ve been feeling “down” lately – is this true depression that warrants medical treatment, or is it safe try a new yoga or meditation class first? These are just a few of the many things that can be assessed and addressed as part of your health baseline. Together, you and your primary care provider can prioritize health problems and determine effective interventions.

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Behavioral Science, Health and Fitness, Medical Apps, Public Health, Technology

What needs to happen for wearable devices to improve people’s health?

What needs to happen for wearable devices to improve people's health?

15353072639_f3a79557df_z“Wearable devices” are pieces of technology that are worn in clothes or accessories, and they often have biometric functionality – they can measure and record heart rates, steps taken, temperature, or sleep habits. Numerous tech companies have begun manufacturing and marketing such devices, which are part of a larger movement often referred to as the “quantified self” – where data about one’s life is meticulously gathered and recorded. Only 1% to 2% of Americans have used a wearable device, but annual sales are projected to increase to more than $50 billion by 2018.

Health and fitness apps are also proliferating, from software that maps where you run or provides a digital workout community, to programs that count calories or suggest how to improve your sleep. But what’s the real impact for people’s health?

Earlier this month, a report from the Journal of the American Medical Association called into question the idea that wearable devices will effect population-scale changes in health. There is a big gap, the authors claim, between recording health information and changing health behavior, and little evidence suggests that this gap is being bridged. Wearable devices might be seen as facilitating change, but not driving it. Mitesh Patel, MD, MBA, from University of Pennsylvania, and colleagues wrote:

Ultimately, it is the engagement strategies—the combinations of individual encouragement, social competition and collaboration, and effective feedback loops—that connect with human behavior.

The difficulty of population health is that changes have to be sustained to have meaningful effects, and that is quite difficult. The authors identify four steps that must be taken to bridge this gap towards sustained change.

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Health and Fitness, Patient Care, SMS Unplugged, Technology

“Nudges” in health: Lessons from a fitness tracker on how to motivate patients

“Nudges” in health: Lessons from a fitness tracker on how to motivate patients

SMS (“Stanford Medical School”) Unplugged was recently launched as a forum for students to chronicle their experiences in medical school. The student-penned entries appear on Scope once a week; the entire blog series can be found in the SMS Unplugged category.

fitness trackerIt was 11:47 PM. That meant that I had 13 minutes to reach my pre-set goal of  “activity” that the fitness tracker on my wrist had been registering throughout the day. If I met the goal I would get a “trophy” on the accompanying app. I probably looked pretty funny bouncing around my living room doing a squat here and a sit-up there, punching a pretend opponent, and running in place. But I made it minutes before midnight. If I hadn’t – well, then I would have just blamed the piece of technology on my arm for not working.

The tracker was a gift from my cousin Steve. Steve is impressively fit; he runs marathons, tackles obstacle courses, and races road bikes. A few years back at Christmas dinner, Steve challenged me to a pull-up contest – I was super hyped and ready for it until, well, I lost. Every holiday season since then, I’ve spent the weeks prior to heading home logging extra push-ups, pull-ups, and bicep curls just in case a re-match comes up. Without knowing it, Steve inspired me to get active. Now, with blinking lights and status reminders, the fitness tracker he gave me does so more frequently, more annoyingly, but in a way, more enjoyably and effectively.

The fitness band on my wrist doesn’t tell me to go to the gym or go for a run. The periodic updates on how far I am from my pre-set goal, however, “nudge” me to get up during a commercial and do a set of push-ups, to get out for a walk, or to take the stairs. I’ve even turned to running in place or a set of body squats whenever I find myself yawning to make sure I get enough points.

In the past, I’ve been good about working out, even doing stretches of two-a-day gym trips. But this doesn’t last very long as I use the busy “medical school” schedule as an excuse. After getting the fitness tracker, it’s been a string of random, spontaneous, and unstructured “work outs” throughout the day. While I may not have achieved Mr. America status, I’ve felt good about meeting my daily goal and racking up “trophies.” It’s even become a bit of a game to see how high I can actually make my numbers go. I’m competing against myself. This may sound weird, but at least I know my opponent and understand what I’m up against, right?

Wearing the fitness band reminded me of the concept of nudges. Nudges, as discussed by Richard Thaler, PhD, and Cass Sunstein, JD, describe how a person can be steered toward making a particular decision without hard instruction. An individual encounters small pushes towards doing something that is desired of them, unaware that they’re being led in that direction. Commercial companies have mastered this in form of advertising, making us feel as if we “need” their product. This fitness band has me thinking that I’m playing a game; the soreness in my legs and looser fitting clothes would indicate that I’m working out.

My experience with the fitness tracker has reminded me of the importance in framing conversations with patients. We often resort to telling patients, “You should work out and eat healthy – if you don’t you’ll get this or that disease.” It’s easy to frame things in the negative and use scare tactics. But rather than give constant reminders of what they aren’t doing, conversations with patients should contain nudges of encouragement. Nudges such as aligning goals with patient priorities, setting check-in time-points, and incorporating social networks for accountability. If we could do for chronic-disease management what the fitness band tries to do for working out, our patients might have an easier time.

Moises Gallegos is a fourth-year medical student. He’ll be going into emergency medicine, and he’s interested in public-health topics such as health education, health promotion and global health.

Photo by Vernon Chan

Health and Fitness, Parenting, Pediatrics, Pregnancy, Public Health

Exercising during pregnancy may reduce children’s risk of hypertension

Exercising during pregnancy may reduce children's risk of hypertension

7619293834_c18e2bee15_zRegular physical activity during pregnancy has been shown to benefit both mom and baby: Past studies found that exercise can help expectant mothers manage weight gain, sleep better, improve circulation and reduce swelling or leg cramps and increase their endurance in preparation for childbirth. A growing body of evidence also suggests that maternal exercise can boost babies’ brain development and influence a child’s health into adulthood.

Now findings (subscription required) published in the Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness show that by exercising, moms may reduce their children’s risk of developing high blood pressure, or hypertension. The Michigan State University researchers say their findings are significant because earlier studies have shown babies with low birth weight are more likely to have poor cardiovascular health and an increased risk of hypertension. PsychCentral reports:

[Researchers] initially evaluated 51 women over a five-year period based on physical activity such as running or walking throughout pregnancy and post-pregnancy.

In a follow up to the study, they found that regular exercise in a subset of these women, particularly during the third trimester, was associated with lower blood pressure in their children.

“This told us that exercise during critical developmental periods may have more of a direct effect on the baby,” [said lead author James Pivarnik, PhD].

The finding was evident when his research team also discovered that the children whose mothers exercised at recommended or higher levels of activity displayed significantly lower systolic blood pressures at eight to 10 years old.

“This is a good thing as it suggests that the regular exercise habits of the mother are good for heart health later in a child’s life,” Pivarnik said.

Previously: Extreme pregnancy: A look at exercise and expectant moms, Could exercise before and during early pregnancy lower risk of pre-eclampsia?, Are women getting the message about the benefits of exercising during pregnancy? and Pregnant and on the move: The importance of exercise for moms-to-be
Photo by Nathan Rupert

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