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Media, Neuroscience

Neurologist explores accuracy of the brain in the movie Inside Out

Neurologist explores accuracy of the brain in the movie Inside Out

brain imageHave you seen the movie “Inside Out” yet? I went over the weekend with my family, and despite reports that some parents weep throughout the last 20 minutes, I only shed a few tears. (A real miracle given what a sap I normally am when it comes to Pixar films – don’t even get me started on the last scene of “Monsters, Inc.”)

The movie takes place inside the brain of an 11-year-old girl, Riley, with different characters playing the role of various emotions (joy, anger, sadness, etc.). I found the movie’s journey through the brain visually stunning and highly entertaining, but I admit to not thinking much about its accuracy – until yesterday, when I came across this post on the NeuroLogica Blog.

Neurologist Steven Novella, MD, writes that he loved the movie and would highly recommend it, but “as a metaphor for brain function, the movie was highly problematic.” He outlines the various ways in which accuracy was sacrificed for plot, or for the sake of simple storytelling, starting with the control panel used in the “command center” of Riley’s brain. “There does not appear to be any equivalent of a command center or control panel in our brains. There is no ‘seat of consciousness’ or ‘global workspace,'” he writes. “Rather, consciousness appears to be highly distributed, with each part of the brain contributing its little bit.”

The entire post is an entertaining and educational read, and I know I’ll keep it in the back of my mind – no pun intended – upon my next viewing of the movie. (Anyone with kids knows there’s no way I’m getting away with seeing a Pixar movie only once.)

Previously: From brains to computers: How do we reverse-engineer the most mysterious organ?, From phrenology to neuroimaging: New finding bolsters theory about how brain operates and Anger: The most evil emotion or a natural impulse?
Photo by geralt/Pixabay

Cancer, In the News, Media, Medicine and Society

Oncology hashtag project aims to improve accuracy of online communication about cancer

Oncology hashtag project aims to improve accuracy of online communication about cancer

6399145505_49e812a63d_zThere’s lots of talk about the need for doctors to communicate better with their patients, and social media is taking off as a medium for doing so. At this year’s meeting of the American Society for Clinical Oncology, which ends in Chicago today, Matthew Katz, MD, a radiation oncologist at the University of Texas’ MD Anderson Center, exhibited a poster displaying a new series of hashtags for different types of cancer. There are at least 20: #leusm for leukemia, #melsm for melanoma, #blcsm for bladder cancer, etc. Patients and doctors alike can use them to be more accurate and specific in sharing information.

As reported in a MedCity News piece, Katz is a big believer in social media as a way for patients and doctors to communicate. He developed the hashtags to provide better access to reliable, high-quality health information for both patients and providers, and he’s quoted as saying:

Hashtags are a filter that can make it possible to make Twitter less noisy. Twitter has a lot of discussion of healthcare, but finding reliable information is not as easy… Patient-physician engagement is important, but the purpose is not to enhance therapeutic relationships. The disease-specific tags may be a way to adapt Twitter’s open platform to focus conversations and bring people together for education, advocacy and support.

Katz’s “cancer tag oncology” is based on research begun in 2013, which found that a wide variety of people did use the Twitter hashtags. Katz also founded Rad Nation, an online community of radiation oncologists.

Previously: Upset stomachs and hurting feet: A look at how people use Twitter for health information, Finding asthma outbreaks using Twitter: A look at how social media can improve disease detection, Advice for young doctors: Embrace Twitter, Twitter 101 for patients, and How using Twitter can benefit researchers
Photo by Michael Coghlan

Media, Medicine and Society, Technology

Upset stomachs and hurting feet: A look at how people use Twitter for health information

Upset stomachs and hurting feet: A look at how people use Twitter for health information

MedCity News ran an incredibly informative article earlier this week on how people use social media – and more specifically, Twitter – to consume and discuss health information. Reporting on a recent talk from Twitter engineer Craig Hashi at Cleveland Clinic’s ePatient Experience: Empathy + Innovation Summit, Neil Versel shared:

Some 40 percent of consumers believe that information they found on social media affects how they deal with their health, [Hashi] said. A quarter of Internet users with chronic illnesses look for people with similar health issues. And 42 percent search online for reviews of health products, treatments and providers.

Twitter processes 23,000 weekly tweets with the words “feet hurt,” and the frequency naturally increases as the day and the work week go on, though many people tweet that when they get home on Saturday night as well. “Dr. Scholl’s can actually come in and reach these people,” Hashi suggested.

“Allergy” tweets mostly occur between March and June, Hashi said. “Sunscreen” also peaks in the late spring and summer. “Uncomfortable tummies” is highest on Thanksgiving, with lesser spikes at Christmas and on Super Bowl Sunday. Hashi said that Tums advertised on Twitter around Thanksgiving.

And for those who question the value of Twitter, or don’t quite understand its place in health care, these figures might give you pause: “The volume of information available on Twitter is staggering, Hashi said. There are half a billion tweets send every day. There will be more words on Twitter in the next two years than in all books ever printed. An analysis Hashi put together found that there were 44 million cancer-related tweets in the 12 months ending in March 2015, and traffic spiked in October, which happens to be Breast Cancer Awareness Month.”

Previously: Finding asthma outbreaks using Twitter: How social media can improve disease detectionAdvice for young doctors: Embrace TwitterTwitter 101 for patientsBertalan Meskó discusses how mobile technologies can improve the delivery of health care and What to think about when using social media for health information

In the News, Media, Science

Science enthusiasts flock to #IAmAScientistBecause and #BeyondMarieCurie on Twitter

Science enthusiasts flock to #IAmAScientistBecause and #BeyondMarieCurie on Twitter

iamascientistbecause tweet - smallRecently, a friend of mine commented that scientists “don’t use Twitter much.” The statement may have been true in the past, but as evidenced by #IAmAScientistBecause and #BeyondMarieCurie, scientists and science enthusiasts are now driving some trending topics on Twitter.

Yesterday, a story on Nature.com explained how these two popular hashtags have encouraged scientists to speak out. The first was created by the NatureCareers team in summer 2014, and the hashtag’s popularity suddenly increased earlier this week after Jon Tennant (@Protohedgehog), a graduate student studying paleontology at Imperial College London, shared the hashtag with his 6,000 some followers on Twitter. By Tuesday, the hashtag was trending on Twitter.

The resulting flood of tweets rallied scientists like epidemiologist Chelsea Polis, PhD, (@cbpolis) who told Nature.com she spent a day following the IAmAScientistBecause Twitter campaign online. “Despite all of the negatives, there’s so much that’s beautiful about science,” Polis said.

Meanwhile, a separate empowering conversation began when science editor Melissa Vaught (@biochembelle) tweeted about Rachel Swaby’s (@rachelswaby) Wired.com story on scientific achievements made by women. In her story, Swaby states that one woman tends to dominate conversations of female scientists and that we need to open our eyes to the many contributions other female scientists have made, and are making, to science:

Today if you ask someone to name a woman scientist, the first and only name they’ll offer is Marie Curie. It’s one of the biggest obstacles to better representation of women in science and technology, and it’s time to cut it out. Stop talking about Marie Curie; she wouldn’t have wanted things this way.

Vaught told Nature.com that she created #BeyondMarieCurie as a response to Swaby’s article because “we need diverse stories of women in science.”

As I scrolled through the hundreds of Tweets aggregated by the two hashtags one post in particular stood out. As shown above, chemist Carina Jensen, PhD, (@Chem_Monkey) tweeted, “IAmAScientistBecause a professor said women don’t do well in Chemistry. I proved him wrong.” For me, this unites the sentiments of the two hashtags beautifully.

Previously: The power of social media: How one man uses it to help amputees get prostheticsA day in the lab: Stanford scientists share their stories, what fuels their workChipping away at stereotypes about older women and science, one story at a timeWhat’s holding women in the sciences back? and Women in science: A rare breed

Addiction, Media, Medicine and Society, Mental Health, Technology

Patient tells how social media helped her overcome the “shame” of her eating disorder

Patient tells how social media helped her overcome the "shame" of her eating disorder

3375657138_d025fc4092_bMany of us turn to our friends and families for encouragement when times are tough. So it’s no wonder that social media sites have also become important sources of emotional support for people with illnesses.

Recently, a story over on MindBodyGreen highlighted how one woman used Facebook as a tool to help her overcome the shame and deception that hampered her recovery from her eating disorder. As Lindsey Hall explains:

Two months into rehab, I was still struggling with letting go of the games of my eating disorder. Transitioning from in-patient to out, I’d been rapidly finding myself falling backwards instead of forwards.

Here I was, 24 years old, still living some days bagel by bagel, still opening the door to deception, and guilt and shame. I knew on some level that admitting to my eating disorder on social media would be a way for me to stop the show. I knew I needed to own this struggle in order to own all of myself, and to continue on my journey learning the art of self-acceptance.

As Hall describes in the story, her decision to make her eating disorder public on Facebook was a leap of faith with no guarantee that it was the right thing to do:

I’ll never really know what drove me to write that Facebook status, but I posted it anyway to the open arms of nearly 2,500 “friends” and family, to people that had met me once at a bar or sat next to on a plane. Having lived so long behind a smoke screen, I was ready to expose myself. I needed to feel bare, even while broken, in order to be able to clean my slate, and start from scratch in reconstructing my life.

The feedback Hall received from her gutsy post on Facebook and the subsequent blog posts and stories about her eating disorder haven’t always been positive, but as Hall explains, that wasn’t that point. Hall’s eating disorder is public information now, and this new level of accountability has helped her keep her eating habits on track.

Previously: Incorporating the family in helping teens overcome eating disordersA growing consensus for revamping anorexia nervosa treatmentPossible predictors of longer-term recovery from eating disordersGrieving on Facebook: A personal story and How patients use social media to foster support systems, connect with physicians
Photo by .craig

Media, Medical Education, Medicine and Society, Research, Stanford News

Anthropologist discusses Wikipedia’s implications for health information

Anthropologist discusses Wikipedia's implications for health information

pid_24010Many of us turn to Wikipedia for quick answers to medical questions: What’s an amniocentesis, or what’s the difference between autism and Asperger’s?

Stanford University Press recently published Common Knowledge: An Ethnography of Wikipedia by anthropologist Dariusz Jemielniak, PhD, who studies managerial culture and has long been active in the Wikipedia community. As a fellow anthropologist, I was curious about his perspective and I wondered how medical knowledge is different in the age of Wikipedia.

When I interviewed the personable Jemielniak, he offered some insightful answers to my questions:

How empowering is it for people to have knowledge at their fingertips, on the internet? How is this different from finding information in reference books?

The basic difference is that on Wikipedia it’s usually put in lay terms. It’s readable, it’s comprehensible… With information, people have the perception that they know something about their condition. I’m not sure if they’re right – obviously, knowledge is not just one tidbit of information. On Wikipedia you can’t learn the relations between all kinds of knowledge – you need to have a medical degree to really understand that – but patients feel they are operating in a situation of informational deficit… Information on Wikipedia probably makes people have this feeling of empowerment, though I’m not really certain whether in all cases this contributes to their overall health. Sometimes they’ll misunderstand, misconstrue, or misinterpret because they don’t have the systematic knowledge.

In your ethnography, you discuss how the decentralized power in Wikipedia’s management changes the knowledge structure away from institutions and certified expertise. Without an authority structure, how do you determine who’s an expert?

On Wikipedia, the point is you don’t have to know if someone is an expert… Trust is transferred from formal expertise to procedure. If you follow procedure to the letter, by default you’re producing proper knowledge. If you use correct sources, if you cite all the sources that you found, if you’re doing justice to whatever you read, by default on Wikipedia it’s assumed that you’re just as good as an expert.

What about biases? In the book you say biases usually get toned down through copious editing.

I think on Wikipedia there’s a strong scientific bias of a sort. If a community of people are contradicting what is considered to be the scientific knowledge, quite likely those activist groups will be ignored. If there is consensus in the academic world, this is what will prevail in Wikipedia.

You say Wikipedia is never “published” but in an ongoing process of creation. Is this better for updates about new research?

By all means, I think obviously. Thirty seconds after the new pope was elected this new information was on Wikipedia. On Britannica you’d probably have to wait one year. Traditional media takes a year to go through the publishing process. The continuous release mode that Wikipedia operates on allows for instantaneous improvements and corrections, which is wonderful, it’s really great.

The pope is one thing, but research? How often are pages on research updated?

One of the problems is that research on Wikipedia is accurate at time of writing the article, but gets obsolete if people do not update. Articles that are most updated are ones people care most about… The real question is how many people actually read the incorrect information? Chances are, if there’s a big proportion of people who care about a topic… the more likely it is to be updated.

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Addiction, Behavioral Science, Ethics, Events, In the News, Media

At Stanford visit, Glenn Beck addresses compassion, change and humility

At Stanford visit, Glenn Beck addresses compassion, change and humility

glennUntil this week, I wouldn’t have associated radio personality Glenn Beck with compassion. And when Jim Doty, MD, director of Stanford Medicine’s  Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education invited Beck to the Stanford campus, he realized the right-of-center author and provocateur might be a tough sell to his audience accustomed to guests such as the Dalai Lama and Sri Sri Ravi Shankar.

“Please trust me,” Doty tweeted last week.

Yet fireworks were absent from the nearly two-hour conversation, which ranged from Beck’s struggle with addiction to his Mormon faith and his passion for radio.

Beck came across as human, a man who had endured struggles, made mistakes and is striving to learn from them. He is a father and husband, who organizes charity efforts and volunteers in his church. He said he’s gone from a person for whom the audience size was just a measure of his success to a man who cares deeply about people and his audience members. He prays for humility and said he is not trying to be divisive.

“I spend a lot of time, at the end of my day, saying, ‘Okay, am I that guy? What could I have done better,'” Beck said. “You self-examine all the time and with that self-examination you grow. It’s good. I know who I am because I’m pushed up against the wall all the time.”

Americans share a certain set of principles in common, Beck said. The rift begins when people replace their principles with specific interests and policies.

“For example, if I said to you, ‘Do we torture?’,” Beck said. Nearly everyone would say no. But once threats from terrorists are introduced, the conversation becomes more divided.

“The left and the right have principles in common. We may disagree on interests, but we have to start anchoring ourselves in the principles.”

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Aging, Chronic Disease, In the News, Media, Neuroscience, Women's Health

Science Friday explores women’s heightened risk for Alzheimer’s

Science Friday explores women's heightened risk for Alzheimer's

More than two-thirds of the Americans living with Alzheimer’s are women — some like the character Alice in the movie “Still Alice,” who suffers from an early onset form of the disease.

Science Friday tackled that topic Friday, with guests Michael Greicius, MD, MPH, associate professor of neurology and director of the Stanford Center for Memory Disorders, and Roberta Diaz Brinton, PhD, professor of pharmacology at the University of Southern California. The two quickly disputed the belief that more women get Alzheimer’s disease because they live longer.

“The way women age puts them at risk,” Brinton said. As they transition through menopause, some women develop cognitive symptoms such as insomnia, depression and short-term memory loss, leaving them at greater risk for Alzheimer’s, she explained.

Women who have a form of a gene called APOE-e4 are particularly at risk, although it doesn’t seem to affect men, Greicius said. The gene interacts with estrogen.

Scientists are continuing to decipher the link between estrogen and Alzheimer’s and the possibility of hormone therapies, as well as the connection — if any — between pregnancy and Alzheimer’s risk, the scientists told listeners.

The 18-minute segment is available here.

Previously: Blocking a receptor on brain’s immune cells counters Alzheimer’s in mice, The state of Alzheimer’s research: A conversation with Stanford neurologist Michael Greicius, Having a copy of ApoE4 gene variant doubles Alzheimer’s risk for women but not for men and The toll of Alzheimer’s on caretakers

Global Health, Media, Patient Care, Pediatrics, Research, Technology, Videos

OPENPediatrics offers opportunity to help physicians, and sick children, worldwide

OPENPediatrics offers opportunity to help physicians, and sick children, worldwide

6948764580_97d353e8d4_zAs chief of critical care at Boston Children’s Hospital, Jeffrey Burns, MD, MPH, was asked to consult on the case of a young girl who fell ill while vacationing with her family in Guatemala. He had treated a similar case in the U.S. before, but he encountered unexpected technological hurdles.

That spurred Burns — working with many partners, including IBM — to create OPENPediatrics.org, a platform that allows physicians to share skills and resources to treat sick children. Burns described his hopes for the site in a 2014 article in Medtech Boston:

Our goal was to create something called a community of practice where instead of being broad and thin like a MOOC (Massive Open Online Classes), we would be narrow and much more deep, and the content would actually be peer reviewed by doctors and nurses who care for critically ill children, because those are essentially our primary users,” Burns says.

The site, which launched last year, offers forums for health-care workers worldwide to share experiences and a multimedia library with videos and animations — including some interactive features — on everything from nasopharyngeal suctioning to Faciltating Parent Presence During Invasive Procedures.

Burns and his team have been thinking how to leverage the platform to support research.

(A confession: I learned about OPENPediatrics through an article in Wesleyan magazine. Stanford’s Cardinal brethren on the East Coast, Wes, like Stanford fosters interdisciplinary projects and, I’m proud to say, is the alma mater of two of us in the medical school’s relatively small Office of Communication.)

Previously: Stanford undergrad works to redistribute unused medications and reduce health-care costs, Stanford Medicine X: From an “annual meeting to a global movement”  and Euan Ashley discusses harnessing big data to drive innovation for a healthier world
Photo by Intel Free Press

Health Costs, Health Policy, In the News, Media, Medicine and Society, NIH

#ACT4NIH campaign seeks stories to spur research investment

#ACT4NIH campaign seeks stories to spur research investment

ACT4NIH_Samples_FINAL

No ice buckets are involved in the latest push for investment in medical research. Instead Act for NIH: Advancing Cures Today, a Washington D.C.-based non-profit led by a former National Institutes of Health staffer, is a good ‘ol fashioned media campaign using data, stories and images, including a haunting photo of a presumably sick child captaining its home page.

The need is real. NIH funding has failed to keep pace with inflation or with investments by other nations including China. Now, only one in six research proposals, the lowest ever, are accepted, according to Act for NIH.

The campaign’s goal is simple: “We advocate an immediate, significant funding increase for the NIH, followed by steady, predictable budget growth in the future.”

Not so simple, of course, is the actual funding hike. That’s why the campaign is hunting for stories, as well as money. It urges supporters to photograph themselves besides a ACT for fill-in-the-blank poster. ACT for cancer, for hope, my grandfather, for AIDS – you name the reason to support research, action (and money) is needed.

Science released an interview with leader Patrick White today. White admitted the group lacks a formal plan, but it does have momentum, thanks to the backing by real estate developers Jed Manocherian.

It’s launch comes just in time for the 2015-16 federal budget cycle, which usually begins with the president’s budget proposal in February.

Becky Bach is a former park ranger who now spends her time writing about science and practicing yoga. She’s an intern with the Office of Communications and Public Affairs. 

Previously: How can health-care providers better leverage social media to improve patient care?, NIH network designed to diagnose, develop possible treatments for rare, unidentified diseases and Federal investments in research and higher education key to U.S. maintaining innovation edge
Photo by Act for NIH

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