on January 7th, 2016 No Comments
But developmental biologist David Kingsley, PhD, has made a career out of studying how changes in gene regulation in the aquatic threespine stickleback broadly affect the fish’s skeletal structure. His recent research, published today in Cell, pinpoints a stretch of DNA that controls the size of the protective bone plates sported by marine sticklebacks.
As I explained in our release:
The threespine stickleback is remarkable in that it has evolved to have many different body structures to equip it for life in different parts of the world. It sports an exterior of bony plates and spines that act as armor to protect it from predators. In marine environments, the plates are large and thick; in freshwater, the fish have evolved to have smaller, lighter-weight plates, perhaps to enhance buoyancy, increase body flexibility and better slip out of the grasp of large, hungry insects. Kingsley and his colleagues wanted to identify the regions of the fish’s genome responsible for the skeletal differences that have evolved in natural populations.
“So what?” might ask the more jaded, fish haters among us. (Don’t count me among them — I recently blogged here about my undying love for the silvery, colorful killifish that’s made an undeniable splash in the field of aging research.)
Well, it turns out that this bit of regulatory DNA controls the expression of an important protein involved in bone formation during development. What’s more, this regulatory region is shared among animals separated by millions of years of evolution, from mice to chimpanzees.
But you know who doesn’t have it? Humans. Further experiments in the Kingsley laboratory suggest that the region specifically drives expression of the protein, called GDF6, in the hind limbs of our nearest evolutionary relatives, the chimpanzee.