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Cancer, NIH, Public Health, Research, Stanford News, Videos

NIH associate director for data science on the importance of “data to the biomedicine enterprise”

NIH associate director for data science on the importance of "data to the biomedicine enterprise"

The 2014 Big Data in Biomedicine conference was held here last month, and interviews with keynote speakers, panelists, moderators and attendees are now available on the Stanford Medicine YouTube channel. To continue the discussion of how big data can be harnessed to benefit human health, we’ll be featuring a selection of the videos this month on Scope.

During his keynote speech at Big Data in Biomedicine 2014, Philip Bourne, PhD, the first permanent associate director for data science at the National Institutes of Health, shared how the federal agency hopes to capitalize on big data to accelerate biomedicine discovery, address scientific questions with potential societal benefit and promote open science.

In the above video, he talks about how data “is becoming increasingly important to the biomedical enterprise” and the NIH’s effort to coordinate strategies related to computation and informatics in biomedicine across its 27 institutes and centers, which effectively form the basis of improvements in health care across every major medical condition. “Our goal is to create interoperability between these entities,” he says in the interview. “We see data as the catalyst to create this cross talk across these respective institutes.”

Previously: Rising to the challenge of harnessing big data to benefit patients, Discussing access and transparency of big data in government and U.S. Chief Technology Officer kicks off Big Data in Biomedicine

Public Health, Research, Science, Stanford News

John Ioannidis discusses the popularity of his paper examining the reliability of scientific research

Back in August 2005, Stanford professor John Ioannidis, MD, DSc, published “Why Most Published Research Findings Are False” in PLOS Medicine. The article surpassed one million views last April and, as recently reported in a Q&A on the journal’s Speaking of Medicine blog, it’s “the first PLOS article – research or other – to reach this milestone.”

In the interview, Ioannidis, co-director of the new Meta-Research Innovation Center at Stanford, discusses his motivation for writing about the issue and why he believes the article has remained relevant over the years. On the topic of the most surprising result or outcome of the paper, he says:

Possibly the most unexpected corollary is that more popular research fields are less credible. Several people have misunderstood this statement. This corollary holds when scientists work in silos, and each one is trying to outpace the others, finding significance in his/her own results without sharing and combining information.

The opposite holds true when scientists join forces to examine the cumulative evidence. Sadly, in most fields the siloed investigator writing grants where he promises that he/she alone will discover something worthy of the Nobel Prize is still the dominant paradigm. This sort of principal investigator culture is a problem, especially for popular fields where the literature is flooded with tens of thousands of irreproducible papers.

Previously: A discussion on the reliability of scientific research, New Stanford center aims to promote research excellence, The Lancet documents waste in research, proposes solutions and “U.S. effect” leads to publication of biased research, says Stanford’s John Ioannidis

Big data, Obesity, Pregnancy, Public Health, Women's Health

Maternal obesity linked to earliest premature births, says Stanford study

Maternal obesity linked to earliest premature births, says Stanford study

preemiefeetExpectant mothers who are obese before they become pregnant are at increased risk of delivering a very premature baby, according to a new study of nearly 1,000,000 California births.

The study, which appears in the July issue of Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, is part of a major research effort by the March of Dimes Prematurity Research Center at Stanford University School of Medicine to understand why 450,000 U.S. babies are being born too early each year. Figuring out what causes preterm birth is the first step in understanding how to prevent it, but in many cases, physicians have no idea why a pregnant woman went into labor early.

The new study focused on preterm deliveries of unknown cause, starting from a database of nearly every California birth between January 2007 and December 2009 to examine singleton pregnancies where the mother did not have any illnesses known to be associated with prematurity.

The researchers found a link between mom’s obesity and the earliest premature births, those that happen before 28 weeks, or about six months, of pregnancy. The obesity-prematurity connection was  stronger for first-time moms than for women having their second or later child. Maternal obesity was not linked with preterm deliveries that happen between 28 and 37 weeks of the 40-week gestation period.

From our press release about the research:

“Until now, people have been thinking about preterm birth as one condition, simply by defining it as any birth that happens at least three weeks early,” said Gary Shaw, DrPH, professor of pediatrics and the lead author of the new research. “But it’s not as simple as that. Preterm birth is not one construct; gestational age matters.”

The researchers plan to investigate which aspects of obesity might trigger very early labor. For example, Shaw said, the inflammatory state seen in the body in obesity might be a factor, though more work is needed to confirm this.

Previously: How Stanford researchers are working to understand the complexities of preterm birth, A look at the world’s smallest preterm babies and New research center aims to understand premature birth
Photo by Evelyn

Health and Fitness, Health Disparities, Public Health, Technology

Creating safer neighborhoods for healthier lifestyles

hoodWalking sounds like a simple path to maintaining a healthy weight if you can’t afford a gym membership. But what if your neighborhood isn’t a safe space to walk or jog, or for your kids to play? Abby King, PhD, and scientists from Stanford Prevention Research Center‘s Healthy Aging Research and Technology Solutions lab have been working with residents of North Fair Oaks, Calif., to understand which environmental factors contribute to or detract from a healthy-living environment.

Participants used a GPS-powered Stanford Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool to survey the streets where they lived and provide information about which areas most need improvement in order to facilitate physical activity. During 36-minute walks, the middle-school-aged and older-adult participants collectively provided 224 audio and video recordings of their environment.

The low-income community of North Fair Oaks comprises 73 percent Latino residents. An article in Salud America! Growing Healthy Change reports:

“There are a lot of issues and challenges in the area,” [Priscilla Padilla-Romero, MPH, a public health educator at the Fair Oaks Center and a study author] said. “New immigrants face substantial challenges on a daily basis such as high unemployment rates, and significant social stressors.” Additionally, [Lisa Goldman Rosas, PhD, MPH] mentioned that, “Many immigrants point out that their lifestyles were naturally more active in their countries of origin and when they move to the US they have to think about how to get more physical activity for the first time.”

Among the findings, the piece notes:

The features that were reported as being facilitators of physical activity by the greatest number of participants were:

  • Having amenities and destinations to walk to
  • The presence of good quality sidewalks
  • The presence of parks, playgrounds and crosswalks
  • The aesthetic feel of the neighborhood (for example, attractive plants and well maintained homes)

The features that were reported as being barriers to physical activity by the greatest number of participants were:

  • Poor quality sidewalks
  • Trash and illegal dumping
  • Personal safety

At a June meeting with county officials the study participants, termed “citizen scientists,” discussed which factors of their environment were the greatest barriers to physical activity, hoping to influence local policy and strengthen their community.

Previously: Moderate exercise program for older adults reduces mobility disability, study showsHelp from a virtual friend goes a long way in boosting older adults’ physical activity and What type of smartphone apps are effective for promoting healthy habits among older adults?
Photo by Jukie Bot

Addiction, FDA, Health Policy, otolaryngology, Public Health

How e-cigarettes are sparking a new wave of tobacco marketing

e-cig tip - smallFollowing the FDA’s announcement earlier this spring that it would regulate the sale – but not marketing – of electronic cigarettes, debate has continued on the safety of using e-cigarettes and the ethics of advertising them.

In case you missed it, today’s New York Times delves into the issue and highlights how Big Tobacco is now rolling into the world of e-cigarettes, which writer Matt Richtel calls an “overnight sensation.” A subsidiary of Reynolds American plans to begin distributing its Vuse e-cigarette line nationwide on June 23 with a campaign that includes television ads (forbidden for cigarettes) in major markets, and other tobacco companies have similar entries in the works. Questions about the potentially far-reaching effects advertising of e-cigarettes, including promoting smoking tobacco and reaching child audiences, concern public-health advocates and other critics – and a U.S. Senate hearing is planned for Wednesday.

From the article:

Matthew L. Myers, [JD,] president of the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, who is scheduled to testify at the Senate hearing, said the fact that the F.D.A. did not limit marketing allowed tobacco companies to return to the airwaves with ads that make e-cigarettes sexy, rebellious, glamorous — “exactly the same themes we saw work with kids in the U.S. for decades with cigarettes.”

In the absence of marketing regulation, “they will set the agenda,” Mr. Myers said of the tobacco companies. “They will drive the evolution of the product in a way that serves their interests and not public health, and that’s exactly what’s happening.”

Robert Jackler, MD, chair of otolaryngology at Stanford Medicine, is an expert on tobacco marketing who studies it through his center, the Stanford Research Into the Impact of Tobacco Advertising. Like Myers, he has vocalized his concerns about e-cigarettes and tobacco companies’ aggressive marketing tactics – especially those targeted toward teens – and you can hear more about his views and research in this recent podcast.

Previously: E-cigarettes and the FDA: A conversation with a tobacco-marketing researcherE-Cigarettes: The explosion of vaping is about to be regulatedStanford chair of otolaryngology discusses federal court’s ruling on graphic cigarette labels and What’s being done about the way tobacco companies market and manufacture products
Photo by Li Tsin Soon

Chronic Disease, Public Health, Research, Technology

More evidence that text message programs can help in managing diabetes

mobile_phone_6.16.14Previous research has shown that automated daily text messages can increase medication adherence among diabetic patients and reduce their repeated visits to the emergency room. Now new research offers more evidence that text-message-based programs are an effective tool in helping in those with type 2 diabetes improve their glycemic control.

For the study, researchers from the Scripps Whittier Diabetes Institute partnered with a San Diego-based community clinic providing care to a large percentage of Latino patients with type 2 diabetes. A group of 126 patients were randomly assigned to receive either standard care alone or standard care combined with frequent text messages. According to a release:

Standard care consisted of regular visits with a primary care physician and a brief computerized presentation conducted in English or Spanish that included; diabetes nutrition standards; desired targets for blood sugar, cholesterol and blood pressure; and medications recommended to achieve control.

For the text messaging group, the same standard care was provided but in addition messages were sent to their mobile devices at random times throughout the week. The messages focused on healthy nutrition tips, the benefits of physical activity and medication adherence, and requests to check blood sugar and send back results. Two to three messages were sent each day at the beginning of study enrollment, and the frequency tapered off over a six-month period.

“At the six-month mark, we found that the Dulce Digital [study] participants had a significantly larger decrease in hemoglobin A1c test levels than the control group,” said [Athena Philis-Tsimikas, MD, corporate vice president for the Scripps Whittier Diabetes Institute.]

Noting the promise of mobile phones to aide low-income populations in managing chronic diseases, Philis-Tsimikas said in the release, “We found that by using text messages we were able to circumvent many of the barriers these patients face, such as lack of transportation or childcare, while still being able to expand the reach of diabetes care and education.”

The findings were presented on Friday at the 74th Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association in San Francisco.

Previously: Text message program helps smokers “stay focused on quitting”, Text message reminders shown effective in boosting flu shot rates among pregnant women and Texts may help people with diabetes manage care
Via HealthCanal
Photo by Wolfman-K

CDC, In the News, Pediatrics, Public Health

Teens these days: smoking less, but engaging in other risky behaviors

Teens these days: smoking less, but engaging in other risky behaviors

teen musicalMr. Camel, tear up those cigarettes. Statistics from the latest Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey, released today by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, show that 2013 marked the lowest incidence (15.7 percent) of teen smoking reported since 1991.

In other news, texting while driving, drinking soda and having unprotected sex are among the behaviors the report notes are worthy of concern. From the report:

During the 30 days before the survey, 41.4% of high school students nationwide among the 64.7% who drove a car or other vehicle during the 30 days before the survey had texted or e-mailed while driving, 34.9% had drunk alcohol, and 23.4% had used marijuana. During the 12 months before the survey, 14.8% had been electronically bullied, 19.6% had been bullied on school property, and 8.0% had attempted suicide.

During the 7 days before the survey, 5.0% of high school students had not eaten fruit or drunk 100% fruit juices and 6.6% had not eaten vegetables. More than one-third (41.3%) had played video or computer games or used a computer for something that was not school work for 3 or more hours per day on an average school day.

Previously: Adolescent Health Van wins community award for aiming to “help kids turn their lives around”A reminder that texting and driving don’t mix, To reduce use, educate teens on the risks of marijuana and prescription drugs and National Cancer Institute introduces free text message cessation service for teens
Via The Checkup
Photo by Daniel Oines

Big data, Public Health, Research, Stanford News, Videos

Videos of Big Data in Biomedicine keynotes and panel discussions now available online

Videos of Big Data in Biomedicine keynotes and panel discussions now available online

video platform video management video solutionsvideo player

Computational processing power and interconnectedness are causing massive, ongoing advances in biomedical research and health care. But, as discussed at the Big Data in Biomedicine conference, large-scale data analysis also holds the potential to be even more disruptive and transform how we diagnose, treat and prevent disease.

Those who weren’t able to attend the event or watch the webcast, as well as others who may want to review the presentations a second time, can now watch videos of a selection of the keynote speeches and panel discussions on the conference website.

Among the videos available is a talk by David Glazer, director of engineering at Google, about how the company is working to foster collaboration among biomedical researchers that need to analyze vast amounts of data and those with the technological tools to do so. In another talk, Taha Kass-Hout, MD, chief health informatics officer at the Food and Drug Administration, outlined the importance of big data to the federal agency’s mission “to protect and promote the public health” and in promoting information-sharing with transparency and protection of privacy. The video above – the final keynote from Vinod Khosla, MBA, founder of Khosla Ventures and a co-founder of Sun Microsystems – is a must watch. The legendary venture capitalist sparked debate when he shared his perspective that “technology will replace 80 to 90 percent of doctors’ role in the decision-making process.”

Previously: Stanford statistician Chiara Sabatti on teaching students to “ride the big data wave”, Using Google Glass to help individuals with autism better understand social cues, Rising to the challenge of harnessing big data to benefit patients and Discussing access and transparency of big data in government.

Evolution, Genetics, Global Health, Public Health, Research, Stanford News

Melting pot or mosaic? International collaboration studies genomic diversity in Mexico

Melting pot or mosaic? International collaboration studies genomic diversity in Mexico

6626429111_df791cbb8d_zMexico is a vast country with a storied past. Indigenous Native American groups across the country maintain their own languages and culture, while its cosmopolitan residents of large cities are as globally connected as anywhere on Earth. But Mexicans and Mexican Americans are usually lumped together as “Latinos” for the purposes of genetic or medical studies.

Now an international collaboration headed by Stanford geneticist Carlos Bustamante, PhD, and the University of California, San Francisco pulmonologist and public-health expert Esteban Burchard, MD, MPH, has assessed the breadth and depth of genomic diversity in Mexico for the first time. Their work was published today in Science. As I explain in our release:

The researchers compared variation in more than 1 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs, among 511 people representing 20 indigenous populations from all over Mexico. They compared these findings with SNP variation among 500 people of mixed Mexican, European and African descent (a category called mestizos) from 10 Mexican states, a region of Guadalajara and Los Angeles, as well as with SNP variation among individuals from 16 European populations and the Yoruba people of West Africa.

The researchers found that Mexico’s indigenous populations diverge genetically along a diagonal northwest-to-southeast axis, with differences becoming more pronounced as the ethnic groups become more geographically distant from one another. In particular, the Seri people along the northern mainland coast of the Gulf of California and a Mayan people known as the Lacandon found near the country’s southern border with Guatemala are as genetically different from one another as Europeans are from Chinese.

Surprisingly, this pattern of diversity is mirrored in the genomes of Mexican individuals with mixed heritage (usually a combination of European, Native American and African):

Consistent with the history of the Spanish occupation and colonization of Mexico, the researchers found that the European portion of the mixed-individuals’ genomes broadly corresponded to that of modern-day inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula. The Native American portion of their genomes, however, was more likely to correspond to that of local indigenous people. A person in the Mexican state of Sonora, for example, was likely to have ancestors from indigenous groups in the northern part of the country, whereas someone from Yucatan was more likely to have a southern native component in their genome, namely Mayan.

“We were really fascinated by these results because we had expected that 500 years of population movements, immigration and mixing would have swamped the signal of pre-Columbian population structure,” said Bustamante

Finally, the researchers found that the origin of the Native America portion of an individual’s genome affected a clinical measure of lung function abbreviated FEV1:

The researchers drew on data that calculated the predicted normal FEV1 for each subject based on age, gender, height and ethnicity (in this case, the reference was a standard used for all people of Mexican descent). To understand implications of these results within Mexico, they modeled the predicted lung function across Mexico, accounting for differences in local Native American ancestry for a large cohort of mestizos from eight states. The model predicts a marked difference across the country, with the average predicted FEV1 for a person from the northern state of Sonora and another from the state of Yucatan differing by about 7.3 percent. (That is, the population from Sonora has predicted values that were slightly higher than the average for the country, and those from the Yucatan were slightly lower.)

“There’s a definite predicted difference that’s due only to an individual’s Native American ancestry,” said Gignoux. “Variations in genetic composition clearly give a different physiological response.”

The researchers emphasize that a lower FEV1 does not necessarily mean a particular ethnic group has impaired lung function. Disease analysis takes place in the context of standardized values of matched populations, and the study points out how it is necessary to match people correctly to their ethnic backgrounds before making clinical decisions.

Stanford’s Andres Moreno Estrada, MD, PhD, and Christopher Gignoux, PhD, share first authorship of the study with Juan Carlos Fernandez Lopez, a researcher at Mexico’s National Institute of Genomic Medicine.

Previously: Roots of disease may vary with ancestry, according to Stanford geneticist, Recent shared ancestry between southern Europe and North Africa identified by Stanford researchers, and Caribbean genetic diversity explored by Stanford/University of Miami researchers
Photo by DL

Health Policy, Media, Public Health, Research, Technology

Lack of adoption of social media among health-policy researchers = missed opportunity

Lack of adoption of social media among health-policy researchers = missed opportunity

Despite the opportunity for connecting directly with the public and policy makers, health-policy researchers have yet to rapidly adopt social media-tools in communicating news about their work, according to a study recently published in Health Affairs.

The survey of more than 200 health and health-policy researchers (primarily MDs and PhDs) found that 14 percent of participants reported using Twitter and an estimated 21 percent used blogs or Facebook in the past year to discuss their findings. However, 65 percent of individuals utilized press releases, media interviews or other traditional media channels. Lead author David Grande, MD, MPA, said in a release that the low adoption of social media among these experts “could be a significant missed opportunity to expose a larger audience to important health news and findings.”

Grande and colleagues identified four factors preventing researchers from participating in social media: the belief that the culture of social media is frequently at odds with that of research, perceived professional risk, low confidence in ability to use social media, and uncertainties about how effective the tools are at disseminating research. Educating researchers about how to use social media and best practices could alleviate these concerns and increase adoption, said the authors. They concluded:

Public investments in research on health and health care are substantial. It is essential to maximize the returns on those investments by making research a key component of the process of developing, implementing, and refining health policies. Historically, the communication gap between researchers and policy makers has been large. Social media are a new and relatively untested tool, but they have the potential to create new communication channels between researchers and policy makers that can help narrow that gap. Determining how health researchers can best use and adapt this new technology to communicate evidence to policy makers should be a priority for universities, research funders, and scientists.

Previously: More reasons for doctors and researchers to take the social-media plunge, A reminder to young physicians that when it comes to social media, “it’s no longer about you”, How using Twitter can benefit researchers and How can physicians manage their online persona? KevinMD offers guidance
Via PsychCentral

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