Published by
Stanford Medicine

Category

Technology

Patient Care, Pediatrics, Research, Technology

How virtual visits can help children in the hospital reduce stress, speed up recovery

How virtual visits can help children in the hospital reduce stress, speed up recovery

Past research has shown that patients in the hospital experience less nerve-related pain and recover more quickly when they have visitors. Now findings recently published in Pediatrics show that virtual visits are equally beneficial.

In the study, researchers at the University of California, Davis Children’s Hospital analyzed the effectiveness of Family-Link, a program that provides webcams, laptops and Internet access to pediatric patients. Researchers assessed the anxiety levels of roughly 230 children who used the teleconferencing service and 135 who did not when they were admitted to the hospital and discharged using the Parent-Guardian Stress Survey. According to a Futurity post:

Overall, children who used Family-Link felt less stressed compared to those who did not use the program. The effect was even more pronounced for children who lived closer to the hospital and had shorter hospitalizations. This group experienced a 37 percent stress reduction when using Family-Link.

“This study shows that we have another tool to help children during their hospital stays,” says Yang. “The improvement in stress scores shows that Family-Link is really helping many children and might possibly be improving outcomes.”

Previously: Using the iPad to connect ill newborns, parents

Cancer, Imaging, In the News, Patient Care, Stanford News, Technology

New technology enabling men to make more confident decisions about prostate cancer treatment

New technology enabling men to make more confident decisions about prostate cancer treatment

To watch and wait, or operate? There’s quite a bit of confusion, and a variety of differing opinions from the medical community, regarding prostate cancer treatment – so it’s no wonder that some men question whether the treatment path they’ve chosen is the right one. A new technology at Stanford, though, is hoping to alleviate some of the confusion and help with the decision-making process.

By using a combination of ultrasound and MRI imaging, Stanford physicians can use the resulting 3D images to get a far more detailed look at the level of cancer and its aggressiveness than they were able to in the past. Patients, in turn, will be empowered with the knowledge to make more confident decisions about how, and whether, to proceed with treatment. ABC7 News recently aired a story on the new technology.

Previously: Six questions about prostate cancer screening, Ask Stanford Med: Answers to your questions on prostate cancer and the latest research and Making difficult choices about prostate cancer

Addiction, Emergency Medicine, Public Health, Research, Technology

Text messages after ER visit could reduce young adults’ binge drinking by more than 50 percent

Text messages after ER visit could reduce young adults' binge drinking by more than 50 percent

Bar_texting_0701414Researchers have demonstrated that text message programs can, among other things, help diabetes patients better manage their condition, assist smokers in kicking their nicotine habit, and encourage expecting mothers to get flu shots.

Now new findings published in the Annals of Emergency Medicine show that text messages can also be an effective tool for reducing binge drinking among young adults whose hazardous alcohol use has resulted in an emergency room visit. During a 12-week study, 765 patients who were treated in the emergency room and screened positive for a history of hazardous drinking were divided into three groups. The first group received text messages prompting them to respond to drinking-related queries and received text messages in return offering feedback aimed at either strengthening their low-risk drinking plan or promoting reflection on their drinking plan or decision not to set a low-risk goal. Another group received only text queries about their drinking, and the remaining individuals received no text messages.

A story published today on PsychCentral reports on the researchers’ results:

The group receiving both text message queries and feedback decreased their self-reported binge drinking days by 51 percent and decreased the number of self-reported drinks per day by 31 percent.

The groups that received only text messages or no text messages increased the number of binge drinking days.

“Illicit drugs and opiates grab all the headlines, but alcohol remains the fourth leading cause of preventable death in the U.S.,” said [Brian Suffoletto, MD, assistant professor in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine].

“If we can intervene in a meaningful way in the health and habits of people when they are young, we could make a real dent in that tragic statistic. Alcohol may bring them to the ER, but we can do our part to keep them from becoming repeat visitors,” [he added].

Previously: CDC explores potential of using smartphones to collect public health data, Could better alcohol screening during doctor visits reduce underage drinking?, Personality-based approach can reduce teen drinking and The costs of college binge drinking
Photo by Anders Adermark

Chronic Disease, Research, Science, Stanford News, Technology

Stanford team develops nanotech-based microchip to diagnose Type 1 diabetes

Stanford team develops nanotech-based microchip to diagnose Type 1 diabetes

Dr. Brian Feldman?s M.D. hold a computer chip that he develop that will benefit diabetic patients at the Stanford School of Medicine,  on Thursday, July 4, 2014.  ( Norbert von der Groeben/ Stanford School of Medicine )

Years ago, when patients showed up at the doctor with excessive thirst, frequent urination and unexplained weight loss – in other words, the classic symptoms of diabetes mellitus – diagnosing them was usually just a matter of checking for high blood sugar. Yes, they needed to be treated for the correct form of the disease, but the two main types were found in different populations. So, in most cases, no lab test was needed to figure out whether someone had Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes; demographic factors were enough to make the distinction.

Of late, there’s been much more cross-over between the two groups. To treat patients correctly, it’s important to diagnose the right form of diabetes, but there’s a problem: The only test that does so is expensive, cumbersome and available only in hospitals.

So it’s great news that Stanford scientists are developing a new Type 1 diabetes test, described in a paper published online this week in Nature Medicine. The new nanotechnology-based microchip, which researcher Brian Feldman, MD, PhD, holds in the photo above, tests patients’ blood for the auto-antibodies that cause Type 1 diabetes. The new test is cheap, portable, and uses much less blood than the older diagnostic test. Unlike the old test, it requires no radioactive reagents and is simple enough to use in low-tech settings.

The test uses a nanotech enhancement (specifically, nano-sized islands of gold; hence the golden glow of the chip that Feldman is holding) to help detect auto-antibodies. In addition to diagnosing new patients, this technology will also enable better research into how Type 1 diabetes develops, as our press release explains:

…[P]eople who are at risk of developing Type 1 diabetes, such patients’ close relatives, also may benefit from the test because it will allow doctors to quickly and cheaply track their auto-antibody levels before they show symptoms. Because it is so inexpensive, the test may also allow the first broad screening for diabetes auto-antibodies in the population at large.

“The auto-antibodies truly are a crystal ball,” Feldman said. “Even if you don’t have [Type 1] diabetes yet, if you have one auto-antibody linked to diabetes in your blood, you are at significant risk; with multiple auto-antibodies, it’s more than 90 percent risk.”

Feldman’s team has started a biotech company to further develop the test and is seeking FDA approval for the new method. In addition, Stanford University and the researchers have filed a patent for the new technique.

Previously: A simple blood test may unearth the earliest signs of heart transplant rejection, Stanford microbiologist’s secret sauce for disease detection and One family’s story on caring for their children with type 1 diabetes
Photo by Norbert von der Groeben

Medicine and Society, Science, Stanford News, Technology

Residential learning program offers undergrads a new approach to scientific inquiry

Residential learning program offers undergrads a new approach to scientific inquiry

SIMILE studentsTwenty-two Stanford freshmen spent the last school year living, studying and socializing immersed in scientific inquiry. In its inaugural year, the residential education program SIMILE: Science in the Making Integrated Learning Environment drew interest from and selected a diverse group representative of the student body, many of whom don’t intend to become physicians or scientists or even plan to major in related fields. SIMILE students take pre-major requisites including writing, rhetoric and breadth requirements focused on the historical, cultural and social contexts of science. They also complete hands-on projects, attend field trips and regularly interact with faculty and guest lecturers in the program. Housed in the all-freshman Burbank House with ITALIC (Immersion in the Arts: Living in Culture), SIMILE students attend lectures and discussion sections in-house and have some shared activities with the new arts-focused residential academic program there.

A recent Stanford Report piece notes:

In the fall, Paula Findlen, [PhD,] a professor of Italian history and director of SIMILE, and Reviel Netz, a professor of classics, team-taught Inventing Science, Technology and Medicine. The class explored how those scientific fields emerged from the human desire to understand nature – empirically, mathematically and philosophically – and to control the environment.

Findlen said the program offered a “big picture view” of how human interactions have changed over the centuries, using history as the lens to understand the invention of science, technology and medicine.

“Fundamentally, SIMILE is a program about the history of knowledge,” she said.

Previously: Exploring global health through historical literatureThoughts on the arts and humanities in shaping a medical career and Intersection of arts and medicine a benefit to both, report finds
Photo by Jeremy Moffett

Parenting, Pregnancy, Technology, Women's Health

First-time moms often seek information online prior to first prenatal visit

First-time moms often seek information online prior to first prenatal visit

pregnant_laptopWhen I was eight weeks pregnant with my first child, I walked into my obstetrician’s office for my initial prenatal visit. I vividly remember being exhausted and sucking on watermelon lollipops for the entire two-hour appointment in an effort to relieve my morning sickness. While in the office, a nurse handed me a thick folder stuffed with various pamphlets and fact sheets on everything from nutrition to genetic testing – but much of the information reviewed wasn’t new to me. I’d already logged plenty of hours online reading about such topics.

So I was interested to read today about findings of a Penn State study showing that many other first-time moms also turn to “Dr. Google,” as well as social media, to find answers during the early weeks of their pregnancy. Women also continued turning to the Internet for information after their doctor visit and found traditional literature lacking. From a release on the study, which appears in the Journal of Medical Internet Research:

Following the women’s first visit to the obstetrician, many of them still turned to the internet—using both search engines and social media—to find answers to their questions, because they felt the literature the doctor’s office gave them was insufficient.

Many of the participants found the pamphlets and flyers that their doctors gave them, as well as the once-popular book What to Expect When You’re Expecting, outdated and preferred receiving information in different formats.

They would rather watch videos and use social media and pregnancy-tracking apps and websites.

“This research is important because we don’t have a very good handle on what tools pregnant women are using and how they engage with technology,” says [Jennifer Kraschnewski, MD]. “We have found that there is a real disconnect between what we’re providing in the office and what the patient wants.”

Noting the prevalence of misinformation online, Kraschnewski added, “We need to find sound resources on the Internet or develop our own sources” [to refer patients to].

Previously: Text message reminders shown effective in boosting flu shot rates among pregnant women and Examining the effectiveness of text4baby service
Photo by Adam Selwood

Applied Biotechnology, Bioengineering, Science, Stanford News, Technology

Manu Prakash on how growing up in India influenced his interests as a Maker and entrepreneur

Manu Prakash on how growing up in India influenced his  interests as a Maker and entrepreneur

foldscope_6.23.14Last week, Stanford bioengineer Manu Prakash, PhD, inventor of the 50-cent microscope, called the Foldscope, and a $5 chemistry kit, participated in the White House’s first-ever Maker Faire.

In a Q&A recently published on the White House blog, Prakash discusses what led him to become a Maker, his journey to the United States from India to pursue science and how he hopes his inventions will change the world. On the topic of how his immigrant roots influenced his interests as a Maker and entrepreneur, he says:

I recently started my own lab in the U.S. I decided to dedicate half of my time to frugal science (in the night time, I am a marine biophysicist). Because of growing up in a developing country context with very little resources, I naturally understand the scale of problems and the scale of solutions needed. But only by being in the hyperdrive mode of innovation in the U.S. do I have the tools at hand to actually tackle these challenges. So what I am as a Maker, an entrepreneur, and as an academic scientist is truly a juxtaposition/superposition of my experiences in these two countries.

Another common thread that my Indian roots taught me, which got strengthened by my experiences in the United States, is empathy. Without it, all the technological innovation in the world will not be utilized. It’s humans that make this incredible machine we call society run. The current society is truly global and we need to be global scientists.

Previously: Dr. Prakash goes to Washington, Stanford microscope inventor invited to first White House Maker Faire, The pied piper of cool science tools, Music box inspires a chemistry set for kids and scientists in developing countries and Free DIY microscope kits to citizen scientists with inspiring project ideas
Photo by @PrakashLab

Health and Fitness, Health Disparities, Public Health, Technology

Creating safer neighborhoods for healthier lifestyles

hoodWalking sounds like a simple path to maintaining a healthy weight if you can’t afford a gym membership. But what if your neighborhood isn’t a safe space to walk or jog, or for your kids to play? Abby King, PhD, and scientists from Stanford Prevention Research Center‘s Healthy Aging Research and Technology Solutions lab have been working with residents of North Fair Oaks, Calif., to understand which environmental factors contribute to or detract from a healthy-living environment.

Participants used a GPS-powered Stanford Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool to survey the streets where they lived and provide information about which areas most need improvement in order to facilitate physical activity. During 36-minute walks, the middle-school-aged and older-adult participants collectively provided 224 audio and video recordings of their environment.

The low-income community of North Fair Oaks comprises 73 percent Latino residents. An article in Salud America! Growing Healthy Change reports:

“There are a lot of issues and challenges in the area,” [Priscilla Padilla-Romero, MPH, a public health educator at the Fair Oaks Center and a study author] said. “New immigrants face substantial challenges on a daily basis such as high unemployment rates, and significant social stressors.” Additionally, [Lisa Goldman Rosas, PhD, MPH] mentioned that, “Many immigrants point out that their lifestyles were naturally more active in their countries of origin and when they move to the US they have to think about how to get more physical activity for the first time.”

Among the findings, the piece notes:

The features that were reported as being facilitators of physical activity by the greatest number of participants were:

  • Having amenities and destinations to walk to
  • The presence of good quality sidewalks
  • The presence of parks, playgrounds and crosswalks
  • The aesthetic feel of the neighborhood (for example, attractive plants and well maintained homes)

The features that were reported as being barriers to physical activity by the greatest number of participants were:

  • Poor quality sidewalks
  • Trash and illegal dumping
  • Personal safety

At a June meeting with county officials the study participants, termed “citizen scientists,” discussed which factors of their environment were the greatest barriers to physical activity, hoping to influence local policy and strengthen their community.

Previously: Moderate exercise program for older adults reduces mobility disability, study showsHelp from a virtual friend goes a long way in boosting older adults’ physical activity and What type of smartphone apps are effective for promoting healthy habits among older adults?
Photo by Jukie Bot

Applied Biotechnology, Bioengineering, Science, Stanford News, Technology

Dr. Prakash goes to Washington

Dr. Prakash goes to Washington

Prakash at White House

It’s not every day that a researcher gets to hang out at the White House – so Wednesday was rather unusual for Stanford bioengineer Manu Prakash, PhD. Prakash, inventor of the 50-cent microscope, called the Foldscope, and a $5 chemistry kit, participated in the White House’s first-ever Maker Faire that day. He called it an “inspiring event” and tweeted the above photo from his time there.

And for those interested in learning more, a paper on the Foldscope was published online this week in PLOS One.

Previously: Stanford microscope inventor invited to first White House Maker Faire, The pied piper of cool science tools, Music box inspires a chemistry set for kids and scientists in developing countries, Free DIY microscope kits to citizen scientists with inspiring project ideas and Stanford bioengineer develops a 50-cent paper microscope
Photo by Manu Prakash

Behavioral Science, Bioengineering, Neuroscience, Research, Stanford News, Technology

Party animal: Scientists nail “social circuit” in rodent brain (and probably ours, too)

Party animal: Scientists nail "social circuit" in rodent brain (and probably ours, too)

party animalStimulating a single nerve-cell circuit among millions in the brain instantly increases a mouse’s appetite for getting to know a strange mouse, while inhibiting it shuts down the same mouse’s drive to socialize with the stranger.

Stanford brain scientist and technology whiz Karl Deisseroth, MD, PhD, is already renowned for his role in developing optogenetics, a technology that allows researchers to turn on and turn off nerve-cell activity deep within the brain of a living, freely roving animal so they can see the effects of that switching in real time. He also pioneered CLARITY, a method of rendering the brain – at least if it’s the size of of a mouse’s – both transparent and porous so its anatomy can be charted, even down to the molecular level, in ways previously deemed unimaginable.

Now, in another feat of methodological derring-do detailed in a new study in Cell, Deisseroth and his teammates incorporated a suite of advanced lab technologies, including optogenetics as well as a couple of new tricks, to pinpoint a particular assembly of nerve cells projecting from one part to another part of the mouse brain. We humans’ brains obviously differ in some ways from those of mice. But our brains have the same connections Deisseroth’s group implicated in mice’s tendency to seek or avoid social contact. So it’s a good bet this applies to us, too.

Yes, we’d all like to be able to flip a switch and turn on our own “party animal” social circuitry from time to time. But the potential long-term applications of advances like this one are far from frivolous. The new findings may throw light on psychiatric disorders marked by impaired social interaction such as autism, social anxiety, schizophrenia and depression.From my release on this study:

“Every behavior presumably arises from a pattern of activity in the brain, and every behavioral malfunction arises from malfunctioning circuitry,” said Deisseroth, who is also co-director of Stanford’s Cracking the Neural Code Program. “The ability, for the first time, to pinpoint a particular nerve-cell projection involved in the social behavior of a living, moving animal will greatly enhance our ability to understand how social behavior operates, and how it can go wrong.”

Previously: Lightning strikes twice: Optogenetics pioneer Karl Deisseroth’s newest technique renders tissues transparent, yet structurally intact, Researchers induce social deficits associated with autism, schizophrenia in mice, Anti-anxiety circuit found in unlikelybrain region and Using light to get muscles moving
Photo by Gamerscore blog

Stanford Medicine Resources: