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Events, Medical Education, Medicine X, Patient Care, Stanford News, Technology

Stanford Medicine X: From an “annual meeting to a global movement”

Stanford Medicine X: From an "annual meeting to a global movement"

MedX_musical_finaleAs Medicine X came to a close Sunday, ePatient and American Idol participant Marvin Calderon Jr. gave a special vocal performance that moved audience members to their feet and ended in an explosion of colorful streamers falling from the top of the main auditorium at the School of Medicine’s Li Ka Shing Center for Learning and Knowledge.

The three-day event, which was attended by more than 650 people and watched via live webcast by several thousand more, is Stanford’s premier conference on emerging health-care technology and patient-centered medicine. The conference hashtag #MedX was a top-trending term on Twitter in the U.S. throughout the conference, with more than 48,000  tweets sent out between Thursday and Sunday.

Medicine X has historically examined how social media, mobile-health devices, and other technologies influence the doctor-patient relationship. But this year, the program also focused on how partnerships forged between health-care providers, patients and pharmaceutical industry would define the medical team of the future, amplify patients’ voices, and shape medical education. Along with the topics of relationships and connectedness, a number of key themes emerged over the course of the conference, including engagement, empathy, and the imp0rtance of  treating the whole person.

Daniel Siegel, MD, clinical professor of psychiatry at UCLA, touched on several of these themes during his opening talk about developing a healthy mind, an integrated brain, and empathetic relationships. “Our relationships give us a sense of being seen, of feeling felt, of feeling connected. Those are the fundamental ways we create well-being in our bodily lives,” he said. “We live in connection to each other… Relationship experiences that are stressful early in life can lead to medical problems later.”

Several sessions put a special spotlight on the importance of treating the whole person and the link between mental and physical health. Patients shared their experiences with depression and anxiety, and many revealed how they had to grieve the loss of their healthy self in order to accept their new life. They also spoke about how they felt weakened by their mental-health condition and struggled to be empowered, or proactive, in their health care. Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD, MPH, a psychologist and professor of counseling and school psychology at the University of Massachusetts Boston, told patients, “Maybe the ‘e’ in ePatient is not enough. Maybe you need a ‘c’ that stands for connected. If you are connected, then the burden that you are feeling can be shared.”

Larry Chu and patient - smallSentiments about the need to foster empathy in medicine were discussed in parallel panels and during coffee break chats. Emily Bradley, an ePatient with a rare type of autoimmune arthritis, told attendees at a session about invisible pain, “I don’t fault my loved ones for not understanding my pain. I don’t want them to understand and I’m glad that they don’t. I think what’s missing is empathy.” Liza Bernstein, an ePatient advisor and three-time cancer survivor, told attendees at the closing ceremony, “Empathy doesn’t need that much. All empathy needs is us.”

The conference also tried to keep a focus on all different types of patient populations – including those who underserved. “There is a disconnect between solutions being build and the needs of vulnerable populations,” said Veenu Aulakh, executive director of the Center for Care Innovation during a talk on the “no smart-phone” patient. “We need to be designing [solutions] for today, not the future, and the 91 percent of patients that have a text-enabled phone.”

Larry Chu, MD, executive director of the conference (pictured above with Bernstein), warmly greeted the audience each morning – and on Saturday had a special announcement:  the launch of Medicine X Academy, a new effort aimed at continuing to build community among all stakeholders in health care and filling important gaps in medical education. The initiative will include a second conference in 2015 titled Stanford Medicine X ED (currently scheduled for Sept. 23-24, 2015). Joining Chu on stage to talk about the initiative, Bryan Vartabedian, MD, a Baylor College of Medicine physician and a longtime speaker at the conference, told attendees that medical education is “ripe for disruption.” And he noted that Medicine X – which has evolved “from an annual meeting into a global movement,” was poised to take it on.

Speaking of a global movement, there was very much a sense during the weekend that what was happening was bigger than just a conference – with at least one panel moderator telling attendees, “This conversation doesn’t end when we leave the stage.” And Bernstein summed up the three days of panels, presentations and powerful Ignite talks from ePatients saying, “I leave here re-energized, recharged, re-inspired and I hope you do too. Stay in touch on Twitter and see you next year!”

More news about Stanford Medicine X is available in the Medicine X category.

Previously: Medicine X explores the relationship between mental and physical health: “I don’t usually talk about this”, At Medicine X, four innovators talk teaching digital literacy and professionalism in medical school, What makes a good doctor – and can data help us find one?, Medicine X aims to “fill the gaps” in medical education, Stanford Medicine X 2014 kicks off today and Medicine X spotlights mental health, medical team of the future and the “no-smartphone” patient
Photos by Stanford Medicine X

Medical Education, Medical Schools, Medicine X, Technology

At Medicine X, four innovators talk teaching digital literacy and professionalism in medical school

At Medicine X, four innovators talk teaching digital literacy and professionalism in medical school

med ed panelOne of my favorite talks yesterday at Stanford’s Medicine X was “Fostering Digital Citizenship in Medical School,” where four esteemed panelists talked about the innovative programs they’ve put in place at their institutions.

The physicians joked several times that a good panel often involves controversy or conflict among speakers – but the four of them weren’t in disagreement about much. They all believe that things like understanding social media and knowing how to build one’s digital footprint are crucial skills for doctors-to-be, even if those aren’t an obvious focus for the students themselves. “We can’t expect students to understand” this, said Warren Wiechmann, MD, an associate dean at UC Irvine School of Medicine. “They’re focused on learning core forms of medicine.” (Wiechmann started in 2010 a program to provide each incoming medical student with an iPad and has since added to the school’s curriculum courses on topics such as social media, wearables, and new digital trends in medicine.)

Kyra Bobinet, MD, PhD, who worked alongside Stanford anesthesiologist (and Medicine X executive director) Larry Chu, MD, to develop and teach Engage and Empower Me, an online course that focuses on patient-engagement design, noted that it’s academic leaders’ job to be “forward-thinking” for the students “so they’re so they’re not behind” when they become physicians. And Bryan Vartabedian, MD, who created at Baylor College of Medicine Digital Smarts, a four-year curriculum that focuses on “professionalism, safety, and mindfulness with social media,” agreed. “We’re asking big questions here,” he told the audience. “What does a doctor need to know 20 years from now? Will he (or she) know how to send a tweet? Do we have to be platform-specific [when teaching]?”

A portion of the 45-minute talk was devoted to the difficulty of incorporating new things in a medical school’s curriculum, which is, panelist Amin Azzam, MD, said, already “chock full.” Said Wiechmann: “The big dilemma is what do we take out to put in in?” In turn, many of the schools’ instructions on digital professionalism and literacy come in the form of elective courses.

When discussing other challenges, Wiechmann said the “line ups not very deep” when it comes to leaders in medical school who know about digital media. These topics aren’t “even on the radar” of many faculty-instructors, he said. The panelists also mentioned that the students – most of whom barely remember a time before e-mail, and many of whom consider themselves tech-savvy – don’t always think they need training on digital issues. “In one way they know a lot about technology, but they don’t get how to be doctors,” pointed out Azzam, who developed a University of California elective course that allows 4th year medical students to edit Wikipedia for academic credit. (“We want them to be digital contributors, not merely digital consumers,” he explained.)

Vartabedian said the information that Baylor provides to their students is contextual. Teaching medical students about smartphone use or social media in general wouldn’t be terribly helpful, he pointed out – but it becomes valuable “if you talk about it in the wards.” What should you do, for example, if a patient engages you via Twitter?

The end of the discussion shifted to patient engagement and the need to educate students about just the thing Vartabedian mentioned (i.e. how to interact with patients on social media) and how the e-patient movement works. “I have a responsibility as an educator to put this content [about patient engagement] – more than, say, biochemistry – in front of students,” said Wiechmann.

More news about Stanford Medicine X is available in the Medicine X category.

Previously: Medicine X aims to “fill the gaps” in medical education, More reasons for doctors and researchers to take the social-media plunge, A reminder to young physicians that when it comes to social media, “it’s no longer about you”, A conversation about digital literacy in medical education, Advice for physicians when interacting with patients online and How can physicians manage their online persona? KevinMD offers guidance
Photo by Stanford Medicine X

Medicine and Society, Medicine X, Patient Care, Technology

What makes a good doctor – and can data help us find one?

What makes a good doctor - and can data help us find one?

Ornstein panelWhile much conversation at Medicine X focused around the doctor-patient relationship, ProPublica reporter Charles Ornstein posed to conference attendees this morning a more fundamental question: How do you find a doctor? “This is trickier than you think,” he said and proceeded to discuss how data can yield helpful information for those looking for (or assessing their current) physician. He outlined some of the information – mostly involving doctor-industry relationships and physician-prescribing practices – that ProPublica has gleaned from federal databases, and he outlined questions that patients might want to ask their doctors about such things. (“So my doctor has a relationship with a company. But how is that affecting my care?” he said.)

Ornstein spent a good amount of time discussing the importance of making information – presumably not just information on negative things, such as whether a doctor appears to over-prescribe a certain medication or has ever been disciplined, but also about thoughts on physicians’ care from patients – more widely available.“We all want doctors who are good at what they’re doing clinically, and it’s time for us to stop making that a secret,” he said, before making his closing statement that “Data should be freed so we can make better health-care decisions.”

In the panel session – moderated by our own Paul Costello – that followed, several important points were made. First, Vivian Lee, MD, PhD, MBA, dean of the University of Utah School of Medicine and CEO of University of Utah Health Care, reminded the audience that the “majority of doctors are not bad apples” and can improve on things if given the chance. University of Utah makes patient-survey information publicly available, and she described the six-month period before this service was launched as a time where doctors worked to boost their level of care. Almost every doctor received at least 4 out of 5 stars by the time the rankings went online, she said.

Panelist Carly Medosch, a patient advocate who has had Crohn’s disease for 20 years, expressed support for access to physician data but pointed out that she doesn’t have time to dig through “tons and tons of research” – she not only has a regular job but a second job managing her disease. And “If I’m taken to the ER for a ruptured intestine I don’t have time to ask questions” about, for example, a doctor’s industry relationships, she pointed out. It was an important reminder that access to data alone might not greatly benefit the average chronically ill patient.

Towards the end of the session, the panelists shared their own ideas of what makes a good doctor, with Ornstein listing good clinical outcomes and empathy as two must-haves. Numerous attendees took to Twitter to express their own thoughts, including patient advocate Liza Bernstein, who offered at least 10 criteria. (My personal favorite: “What kind of PERSON are you? Yes, always, top of your field, but are you a #mensch?) Given the complexity of the issue, as outlined during the panel, I think this attendee hit the nail on the head by tweeting:

What makes a good doctor? Medicine is not a monolith. There is no simple, single answer, regardless of data availability.

More news about Stanford Medicine X is available in the Medicine X category.

Previously: Medicine X aims to “fill the gaps” in medical education, Relationships the theme of the day at Stanford’s Medicine X, Stanford Medicine X 2014 kicks off today and Medicine X spotlights mental health, medical team of the future and the “no-smartphone” patient
Photo of Ornstein (far right) and panelists by Stanford Medicine X

Medicine and Society, Medicine X, Patient Care, Technology

Relationships the theme of the day at Stanford’s Medicine X

Relationships the theme of the day at Stanford's Medicine X

Larry Chu long shot

Medicine X began today with a theatrical bang as quotes from past speakers filled the main presentation hall and flashed across on the stage against an electrifying soundtrack. In welcoming both old and new friends to the conference, Larry Chu, MD, associate professor of anesthesia at the School of Medicine and executive director of the conference, repeated a sentiment from last year’s event, saying, “You belong here with us – we all care about health care.”

Stanford’s premier conference on emerging health-care technology and patient-centered medicine, the event attracted more than 400 patients, health-care providers, technologists, researchers and entrepreneurs to engage in moon shot thinking about the future of medicine and health care. Several hundred more watched the conference webcast.

“We’ve seen information technologies transform lives in so many ways; now it’s time to harness this power to improve health,” Lloyd Minor, MD, dean of the medical school, told the audience in the morning. He encouraged attendees “to think big” and to use their time at Medicine X to identify collaborators to take their ideas from concept to reality.

Collaborations and relationships were the theme of the day, with sessions focused on how engaged patients and their doctors can become the medical team of the future, how the pharmaceutical industry and patients can work together in the drug discovery and clinical trial process, how chronic-disease patients use self-trackers as a sort of partner in their care, and how developers of digital technologies are collaborating with those who might not have an obvious voice. As one Twitter user commented, “Most common words at #medx conference so far: transparent, engaged, relationships, connected.”

Medicine X continues tomorrow and Sunday. If you’re unable to attend the conference in person, you can participate in plenary sessions virtually through a high-quality streaming webcast; registration for the Global Access Program webcast is free. We’ll also be live tweeting the keynotes and other proceedings from the conference; you can follow our tweets on the @SUMedicine feed or follow the hashtag #MedX.

More news about Stanford Medicine X is available in the Medicine X category. 

Previously: Stanford Medicine X 2014 kicks off todayCountdown to Medicine X: 3D printing takes shapeCountdown to Medicine X: Specially designed apps to enhance attendees’ conference experience and Countdown to Medicine X: How to engage with the “no smartphone” patient
Photo by Stanford Medicine X

Medicine X, Stanford News, Technology

Stanford Medicine X 2014 kicks off today

Stanford Medicine X 2014 kicks off today

Medicine_XMedicine X, Stanford’s premier conference on emerging health-care technology and patient-centered medicine, kicks off today on campus. The three-day event opens with a keynote from Daniel Siegel, MD, clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of California-Los Angeles, titled “Interpersonal Connection, Self-Awareness and Well-Being: The Art and Science of Integration in the Promotion of Health.” During the talk, he’ll discuss his approach to developing a healthy mind, an integrated brain, and empathetic relationships.

The conference is being held at the Li Ka Shing Center for Learning and Knowledge. This year’s program will spotlight the relationship between physical and mental well-being with three breakout panels. Additional presentations and panels will focus on the medical team of the future, the use of self-tracking tools to improve chronic disease patients’ health, opportunities for the pharmaceutical industry to partner with patients in the drug discovery and clinical trial process, and ways to connect with “no-smartphone” patients — those who don’t have the access or resources to fully engage with health-enhancing technologies.

If you’re unable to attend the conference in person, you can participate in plenary sessions virtually through a high-quality streaming webcast; registration for the Global Access Program webcast is free. We’ll also be live tweeting the keynotes and other proceedings from the conference. You can follow our tweets on the @SUMedicine feed or follow the hashtag #MedX.

More news about Stanford Medicine X is available in the Medicine X category.

Previously: Countdown to Medicine X: 3D printing takes shapeCountdown to Medicine X: Specially designed apps to enhance attendees’ conference experience, Countdown to Medicine X: Global Access Program provides free webcast of plenary proceedings, Countdown to Medicine X: How to engage with the “no smartphone” patient and Medicine X symposium focuses on how patients, providers and entrepreneurs can ignite innovation 
Photo by Medicine X

Medicine and Society, Medicine X, Technology

A call to make digital-health technologies available to everyone

A call to make digital-health technologies available to everyone

In light of my conversation last month about the “no-smartphone patient,” I found this recent Forbes piece on the need to develop culturally sensitive digital-health technologies of interest. Contributor Rob Szczerba writes:

In recent years, technologies involving smart phones and data analytics have become an essential component of how healthcare is delivered throughout the world.  Moreover, some believe these tools hold special promise for people from poor communities, seniors, and ethnic and racial minorities.  In some cases, people from these groups are more likely to have chronic conditions that can be expensive to treat in the short- and long-term.  Unfortunately, many of the innovators developing health technologies are not well-equipped to understand the special needs of these groups.

Rohit Bhargava and Fard Johnmar, co-authors of ePatient 2015, describe this problem as “multicultural misalignment.”  They warn that digital health technologies, such as mobile and wearable devices, will be much less effective if they are not optimized to account for differences in age, gender, culture, ethnicity, knowledge, and literacy.  They believe that preventing multicultural misalignment is vital, suggesting that we must work hard to ensure “health innovations benefit all segments of society.”

As a reminder, Stanford’s Medicine X conference – where this topic will be discussed – begins tomorrow.

Previously: Countdown to Medicine X: How to engage with the “no smartphone” patient

Research, Surgery, Technology

Replicating the sensitivity of human touch in robots

Replicating the sensitivity of human touch in robots

A piece published today in the New York Times examines the importance of replicating the sensitivity of human touch in designing the next generation of robots. Noting that the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory designed the first robotic arm in the 1960s, reporter John Markoff offers a look at ongoing research around campus, and elsewhere, involving robotics:

Consider Dr. Nikolas Blevins, a head and neck surgeon at Stanford Health Care who routinely performs ear operations requiring that he shave away bone deftly enough to leave an inner surface as thin as the membrane in an eggshell.

Dr. Blevins is collaborating with the roboticists J. Kenneth Salisbury andSonny Chan on designing software that will make it possible to rehearse these operations before performing them. The program blends X-ray andmagnetic resonance imaging data to create a vivid three-dimensional model of the inner ear, allowing the surgeon to practice drilling away bone, to take a visual tour of the patient’s skull and to virtually “feel” subtle differences in cartilage, bone and soft tissue. Yet no matter how thorough or refined, the software provides only the roughest approximation of Dr. Blevins’s sensitive touch.

“Being able to do virtual surgery, you really need to have haptics,” he said, referring to the technology that makes it possible to mimic the sensations of touch in a computer simulation.

Markoff goes on to discuss advances in haptics, “a science that is playing an increasing role in connecting the computing world to humans.”

Previously: Stanford surgeon uses robot to increase precision, reduce complications of head and neck procedures, CyberKnife: From promising technique to proven tumor treatment and Stanford researchers develop flexible electronic skin

Events, Medicine X, Stanford News, Technology

Countdown to Medicine X: 3D printing takes shape

Countdown to Medicine X: 3D printing takes shape

3D printed handFrom customizing lab equipment to assisting in surgical planning to developing models of proteins and pathogens, 3D printing is helping to reshape biomedical research and health care. This year, Medicine X (which kicks off one week from today) will explore the transformative force of the technology during a range of panels and demonstrations in the “3D Printing and the Future of Medicine” session.

During the session, attendees will have the opportunity to learn more about health-care related 3-D printing applications at the “3-D Experience Zone,” which will showcase technologies from leading manufacturers. Attendees can learn about surgical applications of 3D printing from 3D Systems; find out how 3D Hubs is creating a global community by connecting owners of 3D printers with those who want to utilize the technology; and see how Occipital’s 3D scanning hardware for the iPad is supporting patient care. Additionally, they can discover how Artec creates a 3D full-body scan in a mere 12 seconds and enjoy chocolate and candy from the ChefJet food printer.

The session will also feature two Saturday-afternoon panels titled “Diverse Distributed & Design-Driven” and “Innovation Implementation,” with the latter exploring:

…some of the challenges and issues to consider in this brave new world. Will the FDA approve printed food, pharmaceuticals, and medical devices? How can 3D printing startups include patients in their design process? What are the public health implications when almost anyone can print biomaterials from the comfort of their own home? And once we ensure public safety, how can we make 3D printing affordable and accessible for all?

Darrell Hurt, PhD, computational biologist and project lead for the National Institutes of Health 3D Print Exchange, is among the panelists, and Monika Wittig, director and co-founder of Live Architecture Network, will moderate the discussions.

“As a designer, I am thrilled that this conference continues to widen the view of valuable cross-disciplinary collaborations. This is decidedly the aspect that I found most profound during my first Medicine X experience,” said Wittig. “My hope is attendees leave this session feeling a heightened awareness of 3D design and production technologies and the many realms of potential engagement in health sectors including prototyping, globally-distributed production and mass-customized design.”

More news about Stanford Medicine X is available in the Medicine X category.

Previously: Countdown to Medicine X: Specially designed apps to enhance attendees’ conference experience, Countdown to Medicine X: Global Access Program provides free webcast of plenary proceedings, Countdown to Medicine X: How to engage with the “no smartphone” patient and Medicine X symposium focuses on how patients, providers and entrepreneurs can ignite innovation
Image of 3D printed hand from Medicine X

Autoimmune Disease, Chronic Disease, Health and Fitness, Research, Technology

Video game accessory may help multiple sclerosis patients reduce falls, boost brain connections

Wii_balance_boardNintendo’s Wii Balance Board has helped get people off the couch and moving as they play aerobic video games like Super Hula Hoop or Dance Dance Revolution. Now a study published this week in Radiology shows that the video game console’s balance board may help reduce multiple sclerosis (MS) patients’ risk of falls by rewiring their brains.

In a small study, researchers used an MRI technique called diffusion tensor imaging to analyze changes in the brain of MS patients that used the Wii Balance Board while playing video games for 30-40 minutes a day five days a week.

According to a recent Forbes post:

MRI scans in the MS patients in the study demonstrated significant growth of nerve tracts which are integral in movement as well as balance. It turns out that the changes seen on MRI correlated with improvements in balance as measured by an assessment technique called posturography.

These brain changes in MS patients are likely a manifestation of neural plasticity, or the ability of the brain to adapt and form new connections throughout life, said lead author Luca Prosperini, M.D., Ph.D., from Sapienza University in Rome, Italy.

”The most important finding in this study is that a task-oriented and repetitive training aimed at managing a specific symptom is highly effective and induces brain plasticity.”

“More specifically, the improvements promoted by the Wii balance board can reduce the risk of accidental falls in patients with MS, thereby reducing the risk of fall-related comorbidities like trauma and fractures,”

 added Prosperini.

Researchers cautioned that the improvements in balance did not persist after patients stopped playing the video games, suggesting that patients will need to continue their training in order benefit from the intervention.

Previously: Study analyzes video game-related injuries and Comparing the Wii Fit board to a clinical force platform
Photo by Joachim S. Müller

Applied Biotechnology, Parenting, Pediatrics, Research, Sleep, Stanford News, Technology

Biodesign fellows take on night terrors in children

Biodesign fellows take on night terrors in children

baby on bed

Standing in the Clark Center’s grand courtyard, gazing upward at scientists ascending an outdoor staircase and traversing the exterior corridors on the top two floors, one senses that big ideas take shape here. But how?

Prototyping, say Andy Rink, MD, and Varun Boriah, MS, who spent the last year as Biodesign fellows. Part of Stanford’s Bio-X community, the Biodesign Program trains researchers, clinicians and engineers to be medical-technology innovators during its year-long fellowship. Fellows learn the Biodesign Process, which could be likened to design thinking for health care. On teams of two or four, the fellows identify a substantial health-care need and generate ideas to solve it using medical-device innovation.

Though most Biodesign projects take root after fellows complete a “clinical immersion” shadowing health-care workers in a hospital to observe problems, Rink found his inspiration when visiting family and waking up to a 3-year-old relative’s screams from recurring night terrors. The problem was not so much that it affected the child – pediatricians may advise that children will likely outgrow the condition – but that it affected the parents, Rink saw.  The parent’s lost sleep and anxiety over their child’s well being had huge effects on their quality of life. (In some cases, these are so severe that Xanax and Valium may be prescribed to the children as a last-ditch effort.) What if a treatment could be found that involved no medication and no parental intervention, offering everyone a solid night’s sleep?

The physician and engineer are working with School of Medicine sleep researchers Christian Guilleminault, MD, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, and Shannon Sullivan, MD, clinical assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, on a clinical method to treat night terrors in children. In a first-floor room of the Clark Center, they’re protoyping an under-mattress device that senses how deeply a child is sleeping and is able to prevent the nightly episodes from occurring, creating a healthier sleep cycle for the children.  This relieves the parent’s anxiety, and helps the entire family sleep better.

Faculty and students from more than 40 departments across Stanford’s campus, including the schools of medicine, business, law, engineering and humanities and sciences, play a role in Biodesign, as do experts from outside the university. Fellows work closely with the Institute of Design at Stanford, attending – and then teaching – the school’s d.bootcamp. They also have access to the d.school’s facilities and consult regularly with their faculty. Some of the d.school’s methods – focusing on big problems, encouraging radical collaboration, prototyping early and user-testing before focusing on functionality – guide the trajectory of Biodesign projects.

Physicians who are Biodesign fellows often work outside their specialty, and engineers bring a mix of academic and industry experience to the design table. While faculty mentors may simply provide advice to fellows, Guilleminault and Sullivan have become invested in the course of the research as lead investigators on the study. For their involvement, they were both honored with the Biodesign Specialty Team Mentorship Award.

Fellow Boriah noted that medical-device innovation is moving from products like catheters to systems such as health IT, mobile health and software. A former CEO and co-founder of a wearable patient blood-diagnostics device, he said the Biodesign program has provided valuable “access to clinical reality.” Rink, a surgical resident at Northwestern University, said that as a fellow, he’s been “exposed to a side you don’t see in a hospital.”

The researchers are currently recruiting participants ages 2-12 for their study. Rink and Boriah are also working with the Stanford-supported StartX to see their project into the next stage of development.

Previously: Sleep, baby, sleep: Infants’ sleep difficulties could signal future problemsStudying pediatric sleep disorders an “integral part” of the future of sleep medicine and At Med School 101, teens learn that it’s “so cool to be a doctor” 
Photo by MissMayoi

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