Published by
Stanford Medicine

Category

Videos

Cancer, Patient Care, Stanford News, Videos

How a new Stanford program is helping transform cancer care

How a new Stanford program is helping transform cancer care

Earlier this week my colleague wrote about a new program where experienced nurses help newly diagnosed cancer patients navigate their medical care. The video above talks more about the program (“We want to take the fear away from our patients and their family,” explains oncologist Oliver Dorigo, MD, PhD) and how it fits into Stanford’s efforts to transform cancer care.

Previously: Pioneering cancer nurses guide patients through maze of care, Ironman of Stanford Women’s Cancer Center and Director of the Stanford Cancer Institute discusses advances in cancer care and research

Biomed Bites, Genetics, Research, Stanford News, Videos

DNA architecture fascinates Stanford researcher – and dictates biological outcomes

DNA architecture fascinates Stanford researcher - and dictates biological outcomes

It’s time for the next edition of Biomed Bites, a weekly feature that highlights some of Stanford’s most innovative research and introduces Scope readers to groundbreaking researchers in a variety of disciplines. 

It’s a puzzle that would delight puzzle master Will Shortz: How do you pack 2 meters of DNA into a container (the nucleus) only .000005 meters wide? Precisely, and according to plan, it seems. Stanford biophysicist Will Greenleaf, PhD, studies the architecture of the genome, building on the knowledge that DNA’s shape effects how a gene is expressed.

In the video above, Greenleaf, now an assistant professor of genetics, explains: “The genes have to be unpacked to be expressed. The mechanics of that are really fascinating.”

Greenleaf is a physics guy, earning a PhD in applied physics at Stanford to build on his undergraduate Harvard physics degree. He has also studied computer science and chemistry, bringing all of this knowledge to bear on demystifying the structure of DNA, and its RNA offshoots. Greenleaf and his team also develop new instruments needed to measure, see and manipulate DNA structure.

This is important for many reasons, but most directly to treat chromatinopathies, or diseases caused by the improper folding or structure of DNA and its associated proteins.

Learn more about Stanford Medicine’s Biomedical Innovation Initiative and about other faculty leaders who are driving forward biomedical innovation here.

Previously: Caught in the act! Fast, cheap, high-resolution, easy way to tell which genes a cell is using, “Housekeeping” protein complex mutated in about 1/5 of all human cancers, say Stanford researchers and Mob science: Video game, EteRNA, lets amateurs advance RNA research

Autoimmune Disease, Chronic Disease, Immunology, Stanford News, Videos

Unbroken: A chronic fatigue patient’s long road to recovery

Unbroken: A chronic fatigue patient’s long road to recovery

“Fatigue is what we experience, but it is what a match is to an atomic bomb,” said Laura Hillenbrand, the author of Unbroken, about how it feels to live with chronic fatigue syndrome.

I recently finished a Stanford Medicine story and video (above) about another CFS patient, “Erin,” who asked that her real name not be used. After an acute illness in rural Mexico, Erin went from being an elite soccer player to one of the 17 million people worldwide who suffer from the condition.

Most people who acquire hit-and-run infections go back to their normal lives after a few days. But these patients don’t. They become virtual shut-ins, prisoners of a never-ending cycle of flu-like symptoms, many of them bedridden for years. CFS, also called myalgic encephalomyelitis or ME/CFS, has no known cause or cure, frustrating both patients and physicians.

What makes Erin’s CFS story somewhat rare is its happy ending. With the help of Stanford infectious disease expert José Montoya, MD, and cardiac electrophysiologist Karen Friday, MD, Erin is back to working fulltime and playing soccer.

“Dr. Montoya and doctors like him are heroes for taking up an unpopular disease and patients that most doctors shun,” said Lori Chapo-Kroger, a registered nurse and CEO of the patient charity, PANDORA Org. “He combines his medical expertise and a creative approach with a truly caring heart for suffering patients.”

Dr. Montoya is also collaborating with immunologist Mark Davis, PhD, on the Stanford Initiative on Infection-Associated Chronic Diseases, a research project using cutting-edge technologies to identify the biomarkers and root causes of ME/CFS. Working at the Human Immune Monitoring Center, team members are searching 600 blood samples for infectious microbes, inflammation-related molecules and genetic flaws. In addition, they’re conducting brain scans and physical exams to look for physical abnormalities among these patients.

Early results are promising — the team has discovered a number of measurable biological markers that indicate that ME/CFS patients may be suffering from out-of-control inflammation.

The team’s goal: To find out what is wrong with the immune systems of patients with infection-triggered diseases such ME/CFS and Lyme disease, then figure out how to help them get better.

Previously: Deciphering the puzzle of chronic fatigue syndrome

The HIMC is partially funded by Spectrum, Stanford’s NIH Clinical and Translational Science Award.

Aging, Neuroscience, Stanford News, Stroke, Videos

Stanford expert responds to questions about brain repair and the future of neuroscience

Stanford expert responds to questions about brain repair and the future of neuroscience

One cool thing about being at Stanford is access to really, really smart people. Case in point, I get to work with William Newsome, PhD, who, in addition to doing really interesting neuroscience research, co-leads the group that made recommendations to the national BRAIN Initiative, and also directs the new Stanford Neurosciences Institute. He has a lot of insight into the state of neuroscience, where the field is headed, and what challenges scientists face in trying to better understand the brain and develop new therapies.

Newsome recently participated in an Open Office Hours, in which Stanford faculty take questions through Facebook, essentially opening their office doors to anyone with questions. He later recorded answers to those questions in the video above.

In addition to the full- length video, we’ve been posting short excerpts on Facebook. In this clip, Newsome discusses the dynamic nature of our brain’s connections. As he explains, the brain can switch connectivity to let us have one set of behaviors with our boss and another with our spouse.

In today’s installment, Newsome discusses efforts to repair nerves that are damaged in stroke, spinal cord injuries, traumatic brain injuries or other conditions. Stroke is of particular interest right now – the Neurosciences Institute that Newsome leads recently announced the creation of an interdisciplinary consortium at Stanford focused on stroke as one of their Big Ideas in Neuroscience.

In that segment, Newsome points out that nerves of our arms or legs, the so-called peripheral nervous system, can regrow if they get damaged. If you cut your finger, the nerves regrow. If you have a stroke or damage your spinal cord, the nerves don’t regrow. Newsome said:

What’s the difference between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system such that the central nervous system does not regrow most of the time yet the peripheral nervous system does? … When we get that knowledge the hope is that we’ll be able to set the conditions right for regrowth when there’s an injury and we’ll actually be able to help people recover function.

Previously: Deciphering “three pounds of goo” with Stanford neurobiologist Bill Newsome, Open Office Hours: Stanford neurobiologist taking your questions on brain research, Neuroscientists dream big, come up with ideas for prosthetics, mental health, stroke and more, Co-leader of Obama’s BRAIN Initiative to direct Stanford’s interdisciplinary neuroscience institute and Brain’s gain: Stanford neuroscientist discusses two major new initiatives

Cancer, Stanford News, Videos, Women's Health

The squeeze: Compression during mammography important for accurate breast cancer detection

The squeeze: Compression during mammography important for accurate breast cancer detection

After nearly 30 years of reluctantly enduring the pain of mammography, I finally understand why I shouldn’t complain. In fact, I think I should embrace the pain and ask the technician to squeeze my breasts even more tightly between the shelves of the mammography machine.

It’s only a brief moment of pain, after all, but it can make the difference between a breast cancer detected and a breast cancer missed. In a recent video on the topic, Stanford Health Care’s Jafi Lipson, MD, an assistant professor of radiology, explains the very important reasons for women to step up and take the squeeze without complaint. It will only take 30 seconds of your time – and it might save your life.

Previously: Despite genetic advances, detection still key in breast cancer, NIH Director highlights Stanford research on breast cancer surgery choices and Breast cancer patients are getting more bilateral mastectomies — but not any survival benefit

Neuroscience, Research, Sleep, Videos

How sleep acts as a cleaning system for the brain

How sleep acts as a cleaning system for the brain

Here’s one more reason why getting a good night’s sleep is critical to your health. As neuroscientist Jeff Iliff, PhD, explains in this just released TEDMED video, the brain has a specialized waste-disposal system that’s only active when we’re slumbering. Watch the talk above to learn how this system clears the brain of toxic metabolic byproducts that could lead to Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological disorders.

Previously: Why sleeping in on the weekends may not be beneficial to your health, The high price of interrupted sleep on your health and Examining how sleep quality and duration affect cognitive function as we age

Science, Stanford News, Videos

The “simply amazing” work of Nobel Prize winner W.E. Moerner

The "simply amazing" work of Nobel Prize winner W.E. Moerner

Yesterday Stanford chemistry professor W.E. Moerner, PhD, was named a co-winner of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in super-resolution microscopy. In the video above, his colleagues – including Stanford Medicine’s own Lucy Shapiro, PhD, – share their thoughts on his work and the win. “The ability to now look at… mechanisms in a living cell is simply amazing,” Shapiro concluded.

Previously: Breaking the light barrier in medical microscopy: More on today’s Nobel-winning work and For third year in row, a Stanford faculty member wins the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Cancer, Neuroscience, Stanford News, Technology, Videos

Stanford celebrates 20th anniversary of the CyberKnife

Stanford celebrates 20th anniversary of the CyberKnife

Just about 30 years ago, Stanford neurosurgeon John Adler, MD, traveled to the Karolinksa Institute in Sweden, home to Lars Leksell, MD, and a device Leksell had invented called the Gamma Knife. Leksell had long been a visionary figure in neurosurgery, and Adler – inspired by the device that enables non-invasive brain surgery - began to imagine a next step, driven by the addition of computer technology.

Coming up with an idea, of course, can happen in a matter of minutes. Adler had no idea that it would take 18 years before his next step, the CyberKnife, would treat its first patient. Stanford Hospital was the first to own a CyberKnife, and Adler unhesitatingly admits that without the agreement of hospital administrators to purchase that very first device – designed to treat tumors, brain and spine conditions, as well as cancers of the pancreas, prostate, liver and lungs - its development would not have been completed.

This year, Adler and his Stanford colleagues are celebrating the 20th anniversary of the CyberKnife. Stanford has two, one of just a handful of medical centers with that distinction, and it has accumulated the longest and largest history of patient care with the device. To honor Adler and those Stanford physicians who continue to explore its ever-lengthening list of applications to patient care, a new video featuring Adler was created. It’s a quick glimpse of the determination – and luck – required to make that leap from inspired idea to groundbreaking therapy.

Previously: CyberKnife: From promising technique to proven tumor treatment

Bioengineering, Biomed Bites, Neuroscience, Research, Videos

Deciphering “three pounds of goo” with Stanford neurobiologist Bill Newsome

Deciphering "three pounds of goo" with Stanford neurobiologist Bill Newsome

Thursday means it’s time for Biomed Bites, a weekly feature that highlights some of Stanford’s most compelling research and introduces readers to innovative scientists from a variety of disciplines. If you aren’t hooked on this series yet, you will be after hearing from this neuroscientist.

Stanford neurobiologist Bill Newsome, PhD, doesn’t invent new drugs, develop creative treatments or diagnose mysterious afflictions. He mostly uses moving dots to study vision. So it makes sense that even Newsome’s own mother asks the point of his research.

Newsome, who directs the Stanford Neuroscience Institute, fields the question with grace in the video above:

I  am interested in the brain as a biological organ that gives rise to intelligence. We study vision because we believe it’s going to give us certain cues how the brain actually works and understanding the mechanisms by which the brain produces behavior will help us understand all kinds of diseases of the brain… how thought and decision-making and memory and attention go wrong in diseases like schizophrenia, in diseases like depression.

It’s not about the dots. It’s about deciphering the brain, which Newsome calls “three pounds of goo” by gesturing toward his own goo-container. (It’s a well-known goo-container: Newsome also co-chairs the federal BRAIN Initiative). How does what you see influence what you do? What you think? What you don’t see?

Newsome has spent more than 40 years poking around in the brain and he knows it works much better than any of our most advanced attempts to replicate it. Think of all the applications for a machine that can not only see, but can also make decisions based on what it spots. But now, Newsome says, the best artificial intelligence vision systems are only as perceptive as a fly or an ant.

The notion is that if we can understand how real biological vision works, we can build artificial intelligence systems that can do vision much, much better than our current ones can… and we can improve our lives in many ways.

Basic bio it is, and basically very important.

Learn more about Stanford Medicine’s Biomedical Innovation Initiative and about other faculty leaders who are driving forward biomedical innovation here.

Previously: Even old brains can stay healthy, says Stanford neurologist, Marked improvement in transplant success on the way, says Stanford immunologist and Discover the rhythms of life with a Stanford biologist

Imaging, Research, Science, Stanford News, Videos

Breaking the light barrier in medical microscopy: More on today’s Nobel-winning work

Breaking the light barrier in medical microscopy: More on today's Nobel-winning work

Earlier today, Stanford University’s W.E. Moerner, PhD, was one of three scientists to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for work in super-resolution microscopy. Before this technology, the only way to look at structures inside cells was with electron microscopy. But that requires researchers to kill the tissue in order to prepare it for the microscope. Essentially, the objects being examined were frozen in place; scientists could make out cellular structures but couldn’t watch them in action.

Microscopes that use refracted light, or optical microscopes, can be used to observe living cells, but for decades, they were limited from going below 220 nanometers, a hard limit imposed by the wavelength of light. Eric Betzig, PhD, of Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Stefan W. Hell, PhD, of the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Germany shared the prize with Moerner for work that helped break that barrier. Now, researchers can peek inside cells as they are going about their business and observe real-time changes as they happen.

This morning, Moerner spoke to Stanford’s news office via Skype from Brazil about his work and how other researchers, including Lucy Shapiro, PhD, and Matt Scott, PhD, of Stanford’s School of Medicine are applying the new methods to medical research (see above video). Shapiro, a 10-year collaborator of Moerner’s, is examining structures inside bacteria and Scott is looking at subcellular signalling structures. (Shapiro provides comment on her work in a Stanford press release.)

“Because of this revolutionary work, scientists can now visualize the pathways of individual molecules inside living cells,” Francis Collins, MD, PhD, director of the National Institutes of Health, which funds some of Moerner’s work, said in a statement. “Researchers can see how molecules create synapses between nerve cells in the brain, and they can track proteins involved in Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s diseases.”

Below is a clip of Moerner describing what those studying Huntington’s disease have learned using the prize-winning microscopy technology.

Previously: For third year in row, a Stanford faculty member wins the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Videos courtesy of Stanford University Communications

Stanford Medicine Resources: