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Health and Fitness, In the News, Sleep, Videos

“Father of Sleep Medicine” talks with CNN about what happens when we don’t sleep well

"Father of Sleep Medicine" talks with CNN about what happens when we don't sleep well

Dement - smallA good night’s sleep is often the first thing to go when we have an important work deadline or health issue. I know this from firsthand (and recent!) experience: I let a foot injury kept me up until 4 a.m. today even though I know that cheating sleep – or getting a poor night of sleep – is bad for my health.

But is skimping out on sleep now and again really that bad? As Chief Medical Correspondent Sanjay Gupta, MD, and Stanford sleep expert William Dement, MD, PhD, explain in a recent CNN feature: yes. When we rest, our bodies go to work, Gupta explains: “When your head hits the pillow, your body doesn’t shut down. It uses that time to heal tissue, strengthen memory, even grow.”

Dement, who founded the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine in the 1970s and has devoted his career to understanding sleep, has lots of experience with patients who miss out on these benefits because they don’t sleep well – due to obstructive sleep apnea. (The disorder, he says, affects 24 percent of adult males in the U.S.) In the piece, he and Gupta discuss the risk factors, such as excess weight and large tonsils, linked to sleep apnea and what can be done to alleviate the problem.

If you have a few minutes, this video is worth a watch. Dement makes his first appearance at the 2.5-minute mark.

Previously: Stanford doc gives teens a crash course on the dangers of sleep deprivationWilliam Dement: Stanford Medicine’s “Sandman”Stanford docs discuss all things sleep, Why untreated sleep apnea may cause more harm to your health than feeling fatigued and What are the consequences of sleep deprivation?
Photo, which originally appeared in Stanford Medicine, by Lenny Gonzalez

Aging, Medicine and Society, Videos

In honor of National Healthcare Decisions Day: A reminder for patients to address end-of-life issues

In honor of National Healthcare Decisions Day: A reminder for patients to address end-of-life issues

When San Jose, Calif. residents Shirley and Eddie Jones wanted to discuss their end-of-life wishes, they encountered resistance from an unexpected source. As detailed in the video above, their beloved children refused to participate in the conversation.

As with the Jones, the people who love you the most may not be willing to help you because they care too much – and your doctors may be largely silent as they’re uncomfortable broaching this sensitive topic for fear of offending you. So, when it comes to end-of-life planning, you’re largely on your own. And it’s important that you take the first step and break this wall of silence.

Even as you’re reading this, you may be thinking that the topic of end-of-life decision making is not relevant to you right now – that it’s too early. Or it may be that you’re uncomfortable thinking about death. You may even be waiting for your doctor to broach this subject with you and lead the way. After all, as long as you do what the doctor tells you to do, you can get pretty good results with your health care. But, this ‘wait-for-your-doctor’ strategy isn’t going to serve you well when it comes to end-of-life decision making and planning.

Don’t believe me? Then just take a moment to review the evidence (link to .pdf): Eighty percent of people say that it’s important to have end-of-life wishes in writing, but only 23 percent say they have have done so. Eighty percent wish to have end-of-life conversations with their doctor but only 7 percent get to do this. Research also shows that most doctors have neither the training nor the time to skillfully conduct end-of-life conversations with their patients.

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Biomed Bites, Immunology, Research, Science, Technology, Videos

Not immune from the charms of the immune system

Not immune from the charms of the immune system

Welcome to Biomed Bites, a weekly feature that introduces readers to some of Stanford’s most innovative researchers.

Once upon a time, a researcher named Holden Maecker, PhD, met flow cytometry, a technique used to examine cells by suspending them in fluid and then passing them by an electronic detector.

A match that could only be made in a science lab, Maecker was hooked. Maecker tells the tale in the video above:

Flow cytometry is a great technique for looking at the immune system and it’s also a little bit of an art, which also attracted me. It’s something that not everybody can do perfectly well and I got a little bit good at it and decided it was a fun thing to do and a good way to look at the immune system.

Maecker and flow cytometry haven’t parted, yet he’s broadened his mastery of a variety of other techniques to study the immune system as the director of Stanford’s Human Immune Monitoring Center.

“It’s a very interesting position because it allows me to collaberate with a lot of different peopel doing projects that have to do wiht human immune responses — everything from sleep apnea and wound healing to flu vaccines and HIV infections,” Maecker said. “It’s amazing the breadth we have here [at Stanford].”

Learn more about Stanford Medicine’s Biomedical Innovation Initiative and about other faculty leaders who are driving biomedical innovation here.

Previously: Knight in lab: In days of yore, postdoc armed with quaint research tools found immunology’s Holy Grail, Immunology meets infotech and Stanford Medicine magazine traverses the immune system

Big data, Events, Genetics, Stanford News, Videos

Using genetics to answer fundamental questions in biology, medicine and anthropology

Using genetics to answer fundamental questions in biology, medicine and anthropology

At last year’s Big Data in Biomedicine conference, Stanford geneticist Carlos Bustamante, PhD, spoke about the potential of using genetic information to answer fundamental questions in biology, medicine and anthropology. In this video from the 2014 event, Bustamante explains his lab’s efforts to better understand the structure of human genome, how genetic variations are portioned among different human populations and the significance of this information for designing medical genetic studies.

Bustamante will return to the Big Data in Biomedicine conference in May to moderate the genomics session. Speakers for the session are Christina Curtis, PhD, assistant professor of medicine and genetics at Stanford; Yaniv Erlich, PhD, assistant professor of computer science at Columbia University and a core member at the New York Genome Center; David Glazer, director of Engineering at Google and founder of the Google Genomics team; and Heidi Rehm, PhD, director of the Partners Laboratory for Molecular Medicine and associate professor of pathology at Harvard Medical School.

The conference will be held May 20-22 at the Li Ka Shing Center for Learning and Knowledge at Stanford; registration details can be found on the event website.

Previously: Big data used to help identify patients at risk of deadly high-cholesterol disorder, Examining the potential of big data to transform health care and Registration for Big Data in Biomedicine conference now open

Events, Obesity, Pediatrics, Stanford News, Videos

Childx speaker Matthew Gillman discusses obesity prevention

Childx speaker Matthew Gillman discusses obesity prevention

The inaugural Childx conference was held here last month, and video interviews featuring keynote speakers, panelists and moderators are now on the Stanford YouTube channel. To continue the discussion of driving innovation in maternal and child health, we’ll be featuring a selection of the videos this month on Scope.

The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has not changed significantly since 2004 and remains at about 17 percent. However, the rate of obesity among preschool children, ages 2 to 5, has dropped from nearly 14 percent to 8.4 percent, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Matthew Gillman, MD, a professor in the Department of Nutrition at Harvard Medical School, is among the group of researchers working to understand why rates of obesity among younger children have decreased.

In the above video interview from the Childx conference, Gillman discusses two possible reasons why fewer children under the age of five are obese and how this statistic points to potential prenatal underpinnings that influence a child’s risk of obesity. He goes on to explain how researchers previously believed that our health habits in adulthood gave rise to chronic disease, but that studies have shown the risk for these conditions may be determined early in life, even before birth. Watch his full interview to learn more about how fetal development influences our overall health.

Previously: “It’s not just science fiction anymore”: Childx speakers talk stem cell and gene therapy, Global health and precision medicine: Highlights from day two of Stanford’s Childx conference, Innovating for kids’ health: More from first day of Stanford’s Childx and “What we’re really talking about is changing the arc of children’s lives:” Stanford’s Childx kicks off

In the News, Pediatrics, Sleep, Stanford News, Videos

Stanford doc gives teens a crash course on the dangers of sleep deprivation

Stanford doc gives teens a crash course on the dangers of sleep deprivation

Numerous studies, including a big one published in Pediatrics earlier this year, have shown that adolescents are getting less sleep than ever before. But most teens are unlikley unaware of the dangers of sleep deprivation – and that’s something that a group of Stanford clinicians is trying to change. Rafael Pelayo, MD, with the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine, and colleagues recently gave a “crash course” on sleep, and the importance of getting enough, to students at nearby Menlo-Atherton High School. ABC7 captured the story in the video above.

Previously: Talking about teens’ “great sleep recession”, With school bells ringing, parents should ensure their children are doing enough sleeping, Study shows poor sleep habits as a teenager can “stack the deck against you for obesity later in life”, What are the consequences of sleep deprivation? and Want teens to eat healthy? Make sure they get a good night’s sleep

Events, Parenting, Pediatrics, Stanford News, Videos

Pediatric health expert Alan Guttmacher outlines key issues facing children’s health today

Pediatric health expert Alan Guttmacher outlines key issues facing children's health today

The inaugural Childx conference was held here last month, and video interviews featuring keynote speakers, panelists and moderators are now on the Stanford YouTube channel. To continue the discussion of driving innovation in maternal and child health, we’ll be featuring a selection of the videos this month on Scope.

During his keynote speech at Stanford’s recent Childx conference, Alan Guttmacher, MD, director of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Development, told attendees, “We need to be a society that values children.”

In the above video, Guttmacher emphasizes this point as he outlines key issues facing children’s health today. He explains that it’s the dawn of a new era in medical research with the potential to improve the lives of children throughout their life span. To make a lasting difference in children’s lives, he says, research needs to go beyond the medical approach and integrate social and environmental factors. He highlights the example of preterm birth, saying that while we’ve made strides in reducing the infant mortality rate of babies born too early, more needs to be done to understand the causes of preterm birth and prevent it.

Watch the full interview to learn more about why investing in pediatrics research can help the generations of tomorrow build a healthier future.

Previously: “It’s not just science fiction anymore”: Childx speakers talk stem cell and gene therapy, Global health and precision medicine: Highlights from day two of Stanford’s Childx conference, Innovating for kids’ health: More from first day of Stanford’s Childx, “What we’re really talking about is changing the arc of children’s lives:” Stanford’s Childx kicks off and Countdown to Childx: Q&A with pediatric health expert Alan Guttmacher

Biomed Bites, Imaging, Neuroscience, Research, Technology, Videos

Peering under the hood – of the brain

Peering under the hood - of the brain

Welcome to Biomed Bites, a weekly feature that introduces readers to some of Stanford’s most innovative researchers.

Fixing a broken brain is much like fixing a malfunctioning car, misbehaving computer or most anything else that isn’t working as it should.

“Whenever we’re trying to fix something that’s broken, it can be very helpful indeed to understand how that thing works,” says Stephen Smith, PhD, in the video above. “I believe the brain does not pose an exception to this rule.”

That’s why Smith, a professor of molecular and cellular biology, emeritus, has spent his career developing better ways to understand — and see — the brain.

Currently, he’s most excited about a technique called array tomography that allows researchers to observe the brain’s wiring, the linkages between neurons, and gain a better understanding of how it functions.

That technique, as well as others, offers real hope for fixing brains broken by autism, Alzheimer’s disease or other brain disorders. Here’s Smith:

I think the progress we’re making today in understanding basic brain mechanisms is likely to help us greatly as we develop new drugs that can help lessen or reverse the wide array of neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental or injury-related disorders of the brain.

Learn more about Stanford Medicine’s Biomedical Innovation Initiative and about other faculty leaders who are driving biomedical innovation here.

Previously: Visualizing the brain as a Universe of synapses, Examining the potential of creating new synapses in old or damaged brains and Fantastic voyage: Stanford researcher offers a virtual flight through the brain

Big data, Imaging, Neuroscience, Research, Science, Stanford News, Technology, Videos

All data – big and small – informs large-scale neuroscience project

All data - big and small - informs large-scale neuroscience project

The thought of gaining access to data from thousands of brains would make most neuroscientists salivate. But now, a team of Stanford and Oxford researchers is able to do just that. Led by Jennifer McNab, PhD, assistant professor of radiology, the group compares magnetic resonance images from as many as 100,000 people with in-depth 3-D scans developed using CLARITY, a technique developed at Stanford that visualizes intact tissue.

“This is a tremendous resource in terms of scientists being able to look and see who develops a particular disease and who does not and why that may be,” McNab said in the video above.

Her team — which includes Karl Deisseroth, MD, PhD; Michael Zeineh, MD, PhD and Michael Greicius, MD, MpH — is tapping the U.K. Biobank, which has about 500,000 participants. It also uses data from the NIH Human Connectome Project, which could include up to 1,200 MRI images. The project received a 2014 Big Data for Human Health Seed Grant and is part of Stanford Medicine’s Biomedical Data Science Initiative (BDSI), which strives to make powerful transformations in human health and scientific discovery by fostering innovative collaborations among medical researchers, computer scientists, statisticians and physicians.

The project uses two distinct types of “big data.” The large databases with hundreds of entries clearly falls under this umbrella, but even one dataset from CLARITY, which produces extremely high-resolution images, produces big data, she said.

The project may make it possible to glean more diagnostic information from MRIs, McNab said. “Then we can hopefully develop early biomarkers of disease that will ultimately help to guide treatment plans and preventative measures,” she said.

This project offers just a glimpse at the potential of data science. For more on important work being done in this area, mark your calendars for Stanford’s Big Data in Biomedicine conference May 20-22. More information is available here.

Previously: Registration for the Big Data in Biomedicine Conference now open, How CLARITY offers an unprecedented 3-D view of the brain’s neural structure and Euan Ashley discusses harnessing big data to drive innovation for a healthier world

Events, Medicine X, Patient Care, Stanford News, Technology, Videos

Medicine X conference to focus on the theme of “Great eXpectations”

Medicine X conference to focus on the theme of "Great eXpectations"

Known for its powerful patient stories and candid on-stage conversations, the Medicine X conference returns to campus on Sept. 25-27. This year’s program will focus on the theme “Great eXpectations” and explore five key areas, including the challenges associated with accessing health care as you age, the misconceptions and misperceptions faced by patients and population health from the patient perspective.

In a press release about the upcoming conference, Lloyd Minor, MD, dean of the School of Medicine, noted, “The brightest minds and the most innovative thinking converge at Stanford Medicine X — the intersection of medicine and technology… This is one of the most thought-provoking and important events in health care today and will help pave the way for how technology enables patient-centered and patient-driven care in the years to come.”

During the three-day event, Peter Bach, MD, director of the Center for Health Policy and Outcomes at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, will deliver a keynote address. Bach is a physician and health-policy expert whose research focuses on the cost and value of anti-cancer drugs. An accomplished writer, he has authored numerous op-eds on health care, but is perhaps most well-known for his New York Magazine essay “The Day I Started Lying to Ruth” about losing his wife to cancer. Other confirmed speakers include cellist and composer Zoë Keating; Robert Pearl, MD, executive director and CEO of The Permanente Medical Group; and 91-year-old IDEO designer Barbara Beskind.

Registration for Medicine X is now open. More details about the program can be found on the Medicine X website.

More news about the conference is available in the Medicine X category.

Previously: Registration now open for the inaugural Stanford Medicine X|ED conference, Stanford Medicine X: From an “annual meeting to a global movement” and A doctor recounts his wife’s battle with cancer: “My knowledge was too clear-eyed”

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