Published by
Stanford Medicine

Category

Videos

Imaging, Neuroscience, Research, Videos

Exploring the science of decision making

Exploring the science of decision making

Every day we make decisions that affect our work, personal relationships and health. With stakes this high, it’s no wonder many of us dread decision-making and wish we knew how to make better choices.

The first step towards making better decisions is to understand how the process works. This animation from Worldview Stanford’s upcoming course, The Science of Decision Making, shows the regions of the brain that are activated as we evaluate information.

Enrollment is now open for this interdisciplinary course, which explores and applies the nitty-gritty science of making a choice. If you’re unable to participate in the class, but you’d like to learn more about how to make better decisions, you can visit the Worldview Stanford blog for a sample of animations, videos and content from this course and their other offerings (.pdf).

Previously: Exploring the intelligence-gathering and decision-making processes of infantsIs there a connection between consuming mass media and making healthy choices?Genetics may influence financial risk-takingStanford neurobiologist Bill Newsome: Seeking gains for the brain and How does the brain plan movement? Stanford grad students explain in a video

Biomed Bites, Microbiology, Research, Science, Videos

By investigating cells, researchers can “stumble” on the next big thing in medicine

By investigating cells, researchers can "stumble" on the next big thing in medicine

Welcome to the latest edition of Biomed Bites, a weekly feature that introduces readers to some of Stanford’s most innovative researchers.

Tobias Meyer, PhD, was hooked on biology when he learned humans are made out of cells — 10 trillion distinct little entities, joining together to make a human. (“The way to remember this number is that it is approximately the same as the number of dollars in the American debt,” Meyer suggests in the video above.) He goes on to say:

What fascinated me is that each of these individual cells is really something like a small computer that senses the environment — for example hormones it senses but also pathogens like bacteria or even stress.

Then it processes that information, which makes it do things like secrete, divide, or move. So my lab is particularly interested in this question of how cells integrate all these important signals.

Now chair of the Department of Chemical and Systems Biology at Stanford, Meyer and his team try to decipher how the cells that make up the human body work together:

For example, we recently found a receptor that senses calcium in cells that has not been found before. We were able to show this is important in many different systems like immunology and now many drugs companies are using it to develop drugs they didn’t have before.

For Meyer, the takeaway from his experience in biomedical research is clear: “By doing fundamental research, we often stumble accidentally on a big thing that can have a big impact later in human health.”

Learn more about Stanford Medicine’s Biomedical Innovation Initiative and about other faculty leaders who are driving biomedical innovation here.

Applied Biotechnology, Bioengineering, Medical Education, Stanford News, Videos

An online film festival for medtech inventors

An online film festival for medtech inventors

biodesign-process

The Stanford Biodesign program recently posted 296 short education videos on medical technology innovation. From needs finding through business planning, it offers entrepreneurs hours of useful advice on developing medical products.

This video library, which was launched with the second edition of the Biodesign textbook, is free to all. Its well-designed online interface makes it easy to access the advice that medtech innovators need, when they need it.

To create the video library, Biodesign hired filmmakers from both inside and outside of Stanford to capture the essence of the 2013-14 Biodesign fellowship program. During this ten-month program, multidisciplinary teams undergo a process of sourcing clinical needs, inventing solutions and planning for implementation of a business strategy. The program’s track record for bringing new medical devices and technologies to patients is impressive: Biodesign fellows have founded more than 30 companies in the last 14 years.

Each three- to four-minute video features interviews with faculty, fellows, CEOs, investors and alumni who have gone on to launch companies. A few of my favorites are:

The Biodesign video library, which was supported by the Walter H. Coulter Foundation, is an extension of the program’s mission — to help train the next generation of leaders in biomedical technology innovation. While the Stanford-based Biodesign program admits only 12 full-time postgraduate fellows a year, now these lessons-learned can be shared with medtech entrepreneurs around the globe. Just B.Y.O.P. (Bring your own popcorn.)

Previously: A medical invention that brings tears to your eyesBiodesign fellows take on night terrors in children, Stanford Biodesign Program releases video series on the FDA systemHeart devices get at mobile makeover
Illustration from Cambridge University Press

Biomed Bites, Research, Technology, Videos

Decoding proteins using your very own super computer

Decoding proteins using your very own super computer


Welcome to the latest edition of Biomed Bites, a weekly feature that introduces readers to some of Stanford’s most innovative researchers. 

A quick review: DNA codes for RNA, which directs the formation of proteins, the body’s teensy building blocks and messengers. But like individual widgets, proteins still aren’t ready for prime time as soon as they pop off the assembly line.

First they must be folded, partnered with other proteins and crafted into a three-dimensional shapes. Then, they can go about the work of life.

Stanford biochemist Vijay Pande, PhD, has been studying proteins for quite some time, and early on he realized that experimentally, proteins aren’t that easy to examine. They’re small and they rely on precise environmental cues. Once stripped from the cell, proteins behave and assemble differently, perhaps even not at all.

“So we take a very different approach,” Pande says in the video above:

We’ve been pioneering new simulation methods to not just be able to look at the problem experimentally, but to use large-scale computer simulations to understand why proteins would fold correctly, or why they would not fold correctly such as in the case with disease.

By using a very unusual approach where we get people around the world to donate computer time to us, we assembled the most powerful supercomputer in the world to tackle problems like protein folding and protein misfolding.

More than 183,000 computers now contribute to Pande’s project, Folding@home. Perhaps yours will be 183,001.

Learn more about Stanford Medicine’s Biomedical Innovation Initiative and about other faculty leaders who are driving biomedical innovation here.

Previously: Using a smartphone and the Folding@home app to advance disease research, What computation tells us about how our bodies work and Nobel winner Michael Levitt’s work animates biological processes

Autoimmune Disease, Chronic Disease, Immunology, Stanford News, Videos

Chronic fatigue syndrome gets more respect (and a new name)

Chronic fatigue syndrome gets more respect (and a new name)

As has been widely reported, an Institute of Medicine (IOM) report released yesterday acknowledged that chronic fatigue syndrome is a real and serious disease and renamed the disorder “systemic exertion intolerance disease” to better reflect its key symptoms.

Stanford professor José Montoya, MD, who served as a reviewer on the IOM report, is featured in the video above, which accompanied Washington Post coverage of the development. The Post article goes on to say:

“We just needed to put to rest, once and for all, the idea that this is just psychosomatic or that people were making this up, or that they were just lazy,” said Ellen Wright Clayton, a professor of pediatrics and law at Vanderbilt University, who chaired the committee of the Institute of Medicine, the health arm of the National Academy of Sciences.

Although the cause of the disorder is still unknown, the panel established three critical symptoms for the condition (also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis):

  • A sharp reduction in the ability to engage in pre-illness activity levels that lasts for more than six months and is accompanied by deep fatigue that only recently developed.
  • Worsening of symptoms after any type of exertion, including “physical, cognitive or emotional stress.”
  • Sleep that doesn’t refresh the sufferer.

The panel also requires that a patient have one of two other disease manifestations, either cognitive impairment or orthostatic intolerance. Orthostatic intolerance is an autonomic nervous system disorder that is caused by an abnormal increase in heart rate and low blood pressure, believed to be triggered by the disease.

Susan Kruetzer, an SEID patient interviewed by Erin Allday in this San Francisico Chronicle article, expressed guarded optimism about the report’s ability to generate more research funding and patient support, saying “What I want to see is someone in Congress get pretty riled up by this report — have them see how many people are affected, how these people are really ill, how they’ve been mistreated,” Kreutzer said. “I’d just like to light a fire. I don’t know if this report will do that, but I suppose it gives us some ammunition.”

Previously: Some headway on chronic fatigue syndrome: Brain abnormalities pinpointed, Unbroken: A chronic fatigue syndrome patient’s long road to recovery and Deciphering the puzzle of chronic fatigue syndrome

Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford News, Videos

C’mon, be heart healthy

C'mon, be heart healthy

Is your heart healthy? Are you at risk for heart disease? In recognition of American Heart Month, Stanford Health Care has launched a campaign to help people find the answers to those questions. The interactive video above, and this Q&A on preventing heart disease, are good places to start.

Previously: Lack of exercise shown to have largest impact on heart disease risk for women over 30, Mysteries of the heart: Stanford Medicine magazine answers cardiovascular questions, Ask Stanford Med: Answers to your questions about heart health and cardiovascular research, Either you’re a woman or you know one: Help spread the message of women’s heart health and Why some healthy-looking young adults may still be at risk for heart disease

Addiction, Obesity, Science, Videos

Discussing how obesity and addiction share common neurochemistry

Discussing how obesity and addiction share common neurochemistry

In a TEDMED talk published last week, renowned neuroscientist Nora Volkow, MD, discusses using insights from her research on drug addiction and brain chemistry to better understand the obesity epidemic.

Volkow, who directs the National Institute on Drug Abuse at the NIH, thought compulsive drug-taking behavior seemed remarkably similar to not being able to control what one eats. And indeed, with the help of PET scans that image living human brains, she found that the brain chemistry behind these two stigmatized problems is very similar.

The problem has to do with fewer dopamine D2 receptors; in her words, that’s “the biochemical signature of a brain where the capacity to control strong urges has been compromised.” She goes on to talk about such things as pleasurable stimuli versus conditioned stimuli, deprivation states, and how modern society could engineer environments that encourage health.

Volkow ends on a sociological note, challenging the moralizing idea that addiction and obesity indicate a failure to self-regulate:

Dismissal of addiction and obesity as just problems of self-control ignores the fact that for us to be able to exert self-control would require the proper function of the areas in our brains that regulate our behaviors… It’s like driving a car without brakes. No matter how much you want to stop, you will not be able to do it.

Previously: How eating motivated by pleasure affects the brain’s reward system and my fuel obesity; The brain’s control tower for pleasure; New tools from NIDA help diagnose and treat drug abuse

Global Health, Media, Patient Care, Pediatrics, Research, Technology, Videos

OPENPediatrics offers opportunity to help physicians, and sick children, worldwide

OPENPediatrics offers opportunity to help physicians, and sick children, worldwide

6948764580_97d353e8d4_zAs chief of critical care at Boston Children’s Hospital, Jeffrey Burns, MD, MPH, was asked to consult on the case of a young girl who fell ill while vacationing with her family in Guatemala. He had treated a similar case in the U.S. before, but he encountered unexpected technological hurdles.

That spurred Burns — working with many partners, including IBM — to create OPENPediatrics.org, a platform that allows physicians to share skills and resources to treat sick children. Burns described his hopes for the site in a 2014 article in Medtech Boston:

Our goal was to create something called a community of practice where instead of being broad and thin like a MOOC (Massive Open Online Classes), we would be narrow and much more deep, and the content would actually be peer reviewed by doctors and nurses who care for critically ill children, because those are essentially our primary users,” Burns says.

The site, which launched last year, offers forums for health-care workers worldwide to share experiences and a multimedia library with videos and animations — including some interactive features — on everything from nasopharyngeal suctioning to Faciltating Parent Presence During Invasive Procedures.

Burns and his team have been thinking how to leverage the platform to support research.

(A confession: I learned about OPENPediatrics through an article in Wesleyan magazine. Stanford’s Cardinal brethren on the East Coast, Wes, like Stanford fosters interdisciplinary projects and, I’m proud to say, is the alma mater of two of us in the medical school’s relatively small Office of Communication.)

Previously: Stanford undergrad works to redistribute unused medications and reduce health-care costs, Stanford Medicine X: From an “annual meeting to a global movement”  and Euan Ashley discusses harnessing big data to drive innovation for a healthier world
Photo by Intel Free Press

Big data, NIH, Research, Videos

Fly through the inside of a mouse lung

Fly through the inside of a mouse lung

Take a 50-second ride through the inside of an adult mouse lung in this video created by Rex Moats, PhD, scientific director at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles. A post published today on the NIH Director’s Blog describes the animation and points out that the video is a prime example of how scientists are using big data to make biomedical research more accessible to the public:

We begin at the top in the main pipeline, called the bronchus, just below the trachea and wind through a system of increasingly narrow tubes. As you zoom through the airways, take note of the cilia (seen as goldish streaks); these tiny, hair-like structures move dust, germs, and mucus from smaller air passages to larger ones. Our quick trip concludes with a look into the alveoli — the air sacs where oxygen is delivered to red blood cells and carbon dioxide is removed and exhaled.

… [Moats] created this virtual bronchoscopy from micro-computed tomography scans, which use X-rays to create a 3D image. The work demonstrates the power of converting Big Data (in this case, several billion data points) into an animation that makes the complex anatomy of a mammalian lung accessible to everyone.

Speaking of the power of big data, the Big Data in Biomedicine conference returns to Stanford May 20-22. For more information about the program or to register visit the conference website.

Previously: Big data = big finds: Clinical trial for deadly lung cancer launched by Stanford study and Peering deeply – and quite literally – into the intact brain: A video fly-through

Biomed Bites, Mental Health, Neuroscience, Research, Videos

A visual deluge may provide clues to ADHD treatment

A visual deluge may provide clues to ADHD treatment

It’s time for Biomed Bites, a weekly feature that introduces readers to some of Stanford’s most innovative researchers.

Looking out my window, I see a man dressed in red sweats on a bike. There’s my neighbor’s white truck parked in the street. A tree just starting to bud. A fire hydrant. A woman fertilizing roses. Closer, there’s my grey-and-white cat, Grizzly, bathing in the sun. My glass of ice water. My phone. Scattered papers.

And that’s probably only one-thousandth of the things I see right now. (I didn’t even mention the computer.) How do I make sense of that visual onslaught? How do I navigate, perceive threats, respond to changing conditions?

Well, that’s part of the puzzle Stanford neurobiologist Tirin Moore, PhD, is working to figure out.

“I’m a systems-level neurobiologist, which means I study how networks of neurons combine to either process sensory information or to control complex behaviors,” Moore explains in the video above.

How do we filter out what’s important – seeing the dog darting across the street in front of our car, but not focusing on the bird in the tree?

This process is most obvious when it breaks down, such as in patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or other attention disorders that affect from 3 to 8 percent of the population, Moore said:

At present, disorders such as ADHD are treatable, but their underlying neural basis is still very much a mystery… Our hope is that by understanding disorders of attention at the level of the neurocircuitry we will be able to arrive at more effective treatments…

Stay tuned to see what he, and his team, figures out.

Learn more about Stanford Medicine’s Biomedical Innovation Initiative and about other faculty leaders who are driving biomedical innovation here.

Stanford Medicine Resources: