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Behavioral Science, Complementary Medicine, Neuroscience, Videos

This is your brain on meditation

This is your brain on meditation

For years, friends have been telling me I should try meditation. I’m embarrassed to admit it’s mostly because of (how can I put this delicately?) a temper that flares when I’m anxious or stressed out. But, as it is for many people, it’s one of those things I haven’t gotten around to. This video by AsapSCIENCE, though, describing the things scientists have discovered about meditators has me thinking about it again.

Meditation is linked to a decreased anxiety and depression, and increased pain tolerance. Your brain tunes out the outer world during meditation, and on brain scans of meditators, scientists can see increased activity in default mode network – which is associated with better memory, goal setting, and self-awareness. The part of the brain that controls empathy has also been shown to be more pronounced in monks who are long-time meditators. From the video:

“[Meditation] also literally changes your brain waves, and we can measure these frequencies. Medidators have higher levels of alpha waves, which have been shown to reduce feelings of negative mood, tension, sadness and anger.”

Much like hitting the gym can grow your muscles and increase your overall health, it seems that meditation may be a way of working out your brain—with extra health benefits.”

Other demonstrated benefits include better heart rate variability and immune system function. I’m glossing over a lot of the information that’s packed into this entertaining little video, but if you’re curious, check out this less-than-three-minute video yourself.

Previously: Study shows benefits of breathing meditation among veterans with PTSDResearch brings meditation’s health benefits into focusUsing meditation to train the brainCan exercise and meditation prevent cold and flu? and How meditation can influence gene activity
Video by AsapSCIENCE

Cancer, Health Costs, In the News, Stanford News, Videos

An initiative to deliver more compassionate and affordable advanced cancer care

This 9-minute video report from Al Jazeera America’s “America Tonight” offers an intimate glimpse into the lives of veterans suffering from advanced cancer, as they discuss end-of-life issues with their care providers at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System.

More than 200 late-stage cancer patients are participating in this Stanford-designed pilot study. Its goal is to improve the quality of life of these patients, while simultaneously reducing the costs of 11th-hour treatments that might not offer life-extending or life-enhancing benefits.

The driving force behind this study is Manali Patel, MD, a young Stanford oncologist who designed the plan with three others during her fellowship year at the Stanford Clinical Excellence Research Center, called CERC. The Center’s mission includes tests of its innovative care concepts at diverse U.S. health-care sites, in order evaluate and refine them prior to advocating widespread adoption.

The video focuses on one of three major components of the new CERC-designed approach to cancer care. The first is earlier patient counseling and shared decision-making about treatment options, well before a patient is on the brink of death, when emotions overwhelm the decision-making skills of patients, families and clinicians.

These difficult discussions don’t happen as often as they should, as I wrote in a 2012 Stanford Medicine magazine article on topic:

According to a recent study, end-of-life discussions typically take place only 33 days before death. With Patel’s proposed cancer care model, patients would be thoroughly briefed on the survival odds and side effects before being rushed off to surgery or chemotherapy. Many months before the family is gathered around a loved one’s deathbed, a person’s final wishes – resuscitation, feeding tubes, assisted breathing and whether a person wants to die at home – would be well-informed and documented.

Other pilot sites tests are in the process of implementing various components of the new approach. Last week Patel provided an update on these new cancer-care pilots:

And finally, an update on the cancer patients featured in the video: former Army police officer Rafael Arias, who chose to skip a final round of chemotherapy, recently passed away peacefully at his home. Timothy Blumberg is still in remission.

Previously: Uncommon hero: A young oncologist fights for more humane cancer careTV spot features a more humane approach to late-stage cancer care, “Stop skipping dessert:” A Stanford neurosurgeon and cancer patient discusses facing terminal illness
Video courtesy of Al Jazzera America

Applied Biotechnology, Biomed Bites, Genetics, History, Research, Videos

Basic research underlies effort to thwart “greatest threat to face humanity”

Basic research underlies effort to thwart "greatest threat to face humanity"

Welcome to this week’s Biomed Bites, a weekly feature that introduces readers to Stanford’s most innovative researchers. 

Stanley Cohen, MD, isn’t a household name. But it probably should be. The Stanford geneticist was instrumental in the discovery of DNA cloning – the technology that underlies innumerable advances in biotechnology and medicine, and led to the founding of biotech giant Genentech.

It wasn’t always thought possible to snip out a gene, stitch it into a new stretch of DNA – often in a different organism – and have it produce a desired protein.

In the video above, Cohen emphasizes that striving to achieve a concrete – and profitable – goal didn’t enable the discovery of gene cloning. First, researchers had to work to understand the basic biological processes. “In order to apply knowledge, it’s necessary to get that knowledge somehow.”

These days, Cohen isn’t resting on his laurels. Instead, he’s striving to thwart what he considers perhaps the “greatest threat to humanity,” drug-resistent microbes.

“My lab is still interested in understanding microbial drug resistance and the way in which microbes exploit host genes to carry out microbial functions such as entering cells, reproducing in cells and exiting from cells,” he said. Scientists need that basic knowledge to develop strategies to thwart the process, he added.

Learn more about Stanford Medicine’s Biomedical Innovation Initiative and about other faculty leaders who are driving biomedical innovation here.

Previously: The history of biotech in seven bite-sized chunks, The dawn of DNA cloning: Reflections on the 40th anniversary and Why basic research is the venture capital of the biomedical world

Mental Health, Neuroscience, Stanford News, Videos

Hope for the globby thing inside our skulls

Hope for the globby thing inside our skulls

While at the World Economic Forum annual meeting in Davos, neuroscientists Tony Wyss-Coray, PhD, and Amit Etkin, MD, PhD, had a webcast conversation with NPR correspondent Joe Palca as part of his series of conversations on brain science. During their conversation, Palca asked about the current state of treatment for mental health and neurodegenerative diseases (bad) and prospects for the future (better).

When asked the single most important thing people could do for their mental health, Etkin answered, “awareness”. He said people need to be aware of their mental health and know that help exists if they seek it out. Current treatments aren’t perfect, but they are better than no treatment at all.

They also discussed molecular tools for diagnosing degenerative diseases, and the goals of the Stanford Neurosciences Institute‘s Big Ideas in Neuroscience teams that the two co-lead to develop new diagnostics and treatments for mental health (Etkin) and neurodegenerative diseases (Wyss-Coray).

At the end, Palca summarized the wide-ranging conversation saying, “I think it’s a time of actually some hope. I feel quite positive that this globby thing that sits inside our skulls is being understood in enough detail to make some precise changes that can be helpful.”

Previously: Neurosciences get the limelight at DavosNeuroscientists dream big, come up with ideas for prosthetics, mental health, stroke and more

Applied Biotechnology, Bioengineering, Ophthalmology, Stanford News, Videos

A medical invention that brings tears to your eyes

A medical invention that brings tears to your eyes

dry-eye-implantMore than 20 million Americans suffer from dry eye, a painful condition where a personal’s lacrimal glands don’t create enough tears to lubricate the surface of the eye.

But relief is around the corner for these sufferers – a tiny implantable device that stimulates natural tear production on a long-term basis is currently in clinical trials. The device increases tear volume by delivering micro-electrical pulses to the lacrimal gland. It’s inserted into the mucus lining of the sinus cavity or under the skin beneath the eyebrow. Tear delivery rates can be adjusted manually with a wireless controller. (You can watch a video of this device producing tears, below.)

This clever invention is the brainchild of bioengineer and former Stanford Biodesign fellow Michael Ackermann, PhD, who says he spent a good part of his boyhood in Louisville, Kentucky, taking apart things like VCRs, radios and weed-whackers.

“My parents wanted me to be a doctor, but it was very clear from a young age that I was going to be an engineer,” said Ackermann.

He’s now at the helm of Oculeve, a 20-person startup dedicated to helping people with dry-eye. Ackermann’s tale of how he took one crazy idea and turned it into a product that has the potential to help millions of people is featured in the latest issue of Inside Stanford Medicine.

More than one person’s story, it’s another example of the efficacy of the Stanford Biodesign training program, whose fellows have started 36 medtech companies and filed more than 200 patents, all of which have reached 250,000-plus patients.

Previously: Crying without tears unlocks the mystery of a new genetic disease, Instagram for eyes: Stanford ophthalmologists develop low-cost device to ease image sharing and Stanford-developed eye implant could work with smartphone to improve glaucoma treatments
Photo and video by Michael Ackermann

Events, Medical Education, Medical Schools, Stanford News, Videos

What’s it like to be an internal medicine resident at Stanford?

What's it like to be an internal medicine resident at Stanford?

“I remember being in your shoes,” Ronald Witteles, MD, said to prospective residents during a recent Google+ Hangout sponsored by the Stanford Internal Medicine Residency program. “I really felt that Stanford was the best fit for me, so I crossed my fingers and came out here. It’s been everything I hoped it could be and more.”

Witteles is the resident program director, and he joined a panel of faculty, residents, and physicians to share stories and answer questions from prospective residents and the interested public about life at Stanford.

During the Hangout, department chair Robert Harrington, MD, spent time discussing Stanford’s tradition of innovation – highlighting the Biodesign program, a collaboration between the School of Medicine and the School of Engineering, and the Department of Medicine’s Clinical Excellence Research Center, which organizes research teams to discover and design new methods of health-care delivery. When asked to comment on the school’s innovative reputation, he replied: “There is a spirit of innovation across the residency, across the department, and across the university that I think is unique, and is one of our defining characteristics.”

Several programmatic changes were also addressed during the hour-long conversation. Witteles talked about a new initiative called Pathways of Distinction, or POD, which will allow residents to select one of seven individualized pathways that align with their academic and professional interests. Each POD, he explained, will provide residents with a unique opportunity for mentorship and development outside of their primary education in internal medicine.

Additional audience questions ranged from the level of autonomy afforded to residents (the answer: a significant amount, but you’re never left by yourself), to favorite things about Palo Alto, which garnered enthusiastic group consensus about the vibrant food scene and the close proximity to nature. Watch the full conversation above.

Previously: Stanford Internal Medicine Residency program to host Google+ Hangout

Applied Biotechnology, Bioengineering, Biomed Bites, Cancer, Imaging, Technology, Videos

Beam me up! Detecting disease with non-invasive technology

Beam me up! Detecting disease with non-invasive technology

Here’s this week’s Biomed Bites, a feature appearing each Thursday that introduces readers to Stanford’s most innovative biomedical researchers.

Star Trek fans rejoice! Stanford radiologist Sam Gambhir, MD, PhD, hopes that someday he’ll be able to scan patients using a handheld device — similar to the one used by Bones in the popular sci-fi series — to check their health.

“Our long-term goals are to be able to figure out what’s going on in each and every one of you cells anywhere in your body by essentially scanning you,” Gambhir said in the video above. “We’ve been working on this area for well over three decades.”

This is useful because it will help doctors diagnose diseases such as cancer months or even years before the symptoms become apparent, Gambhir said.

And these advances aren’t light-years away. “Many of the things we’re doing have already started to move into the hospital setting and are being tested in patients. Many others will come in the years to follow,” he said.

Gambhir is chair of the Department of Radiology. He also directs the Molecular Imaging Program and the Canary Center for Cancer Early Detection.

Learn more about Stanford Medicine’s Biomedical Innovation Initiative and about other faculty leaders who are driving biomedical innovation here.

Previously: Stanford partnering with Google [x] and Duke to better understand the human body, Nano-hitchhikers ride stem cells into heart, let researchers watch in real time and weeks later and Developing a new molecular imaging system and technique for early disease detection

Biomed Bites, Genetics, Research, Videos

Gene regulation controls identity – and health

Gene regulation controls identity - and health

Welcome to the first Biomed Bites of 2015. We’ll be continuing this series this year — check each Thursday to meet more of Stanford’s most innovative biomedical researchers.

Push play and prepare to blow away many of your preconceptions about genetics. ‘Cause gene aren’t the thing these days. At least not for Michael Snyder, PhD. He leads Stanford’s genetics department and directs the Stanford Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine. Here’s Snyder:

One of the things we’ve found is that our DNA has a lot more regulatory elements than people previously appreciated. In fact, there are more regulatory elements for genes than the genes themselves.

And that’s not all. What makes you you, is, in fact, your regulatory elements, not so much your genes, which really aren’t that different from those of a chimpanzee or that next-door neighbor you dislike.

Your health may also be governed by these regulatory elements, Snyder says:

This is going to be very, very powerful in a world where many people are getting their human genome sequences and trying to understand what diseases they might be at risk for or what diseases they have and what the underlying causes are.

This knowledge might lead to swifter diagnoses, or even prevent the disease from emerging at all.

Learn more about Stanford Medicine’s Biomedical Innovation Initiative and about other faculty leaders who are driving biomedical innovation here.

Previously: Of mice and men: Stanford researchers compare mammals’ genomes to aid human clinical research, Personal molecular profiling detects diseases earlier and  You say “protein interactions,” I say “mosh pit”: New insights on the dynamics of gene expression

Neuroscience, Stanford News, Videos

A detailed look at latest advancements in treating brain tumors

A detailed look at latest advancements in treating brain tumors

Advancements in radiology and imaging combined with the increasing use of robotics and computers in neurosurgery have dramatically changed the way physicians treat brain tumors. Steven Chang, MD, director of the Stanford Neurogenetics Program and the Stanford Neuromolecular Innovation Program, offers an overview of these revolutionizing techniques in this Stanford Health Care video.

During the lecture, Change provides specific examples of how cutting-edge technologies and therapies have improved patient outcomes. One such technology is intraoperative MRI (iMRI), which allows surgeons to image the patient while on the operating room table to achieve a more complete removal of the brain tumor. He also addresses how radiosurgery can overcome challenges in treating tumors near the optic nerve, which pose a threat to individuals’ vision, or in other high-risk cases, such as patients likely to experience cardiac complications during or after surgery. Watch the full talk to learn more about what the future of neurosurgery holds.

Previously: A Stanford neurosurgeon discusses advances in treating brain tumors, Stanford celebrates 20th anniversary of the CyberKnife and Stanford brain tumor research featured on “Bay Area Proud”

Chronic Disease, Nutrition, Obesity, Videos

The role of nutrition in diabetes prevention and management

The role of nutrition in diabetes prevention and management

Can certain diets help patients prevent or manage their diabetes? Which foods are best for diabetics and which ones should they avoid? If you increase your coffee consumption, will it reduce your risk of diabetes? Kathleen Kenny, MD, a clinical associate professor at Stanford, and Jessica Shipley, a clinical dietitian at Stanford Hospital & Clinics, answered these questions and others about diabetes and nutrition in a recent Stanford Health Library talk.

In the above video, Kenny and Shipley also discuss the glycemic index and how it should be used to tailor dietary choices; examine how Mediterranean, low-carb and low-calorie diets affect diabetes; and explain how eating healthy can prevent or reverse the disease. The lecture is a must-watch for anyone wanting to make healthier food choices to benefit their health.

This video is the final lecture in a three-part series addressing important questions related to diabetes and lifestyle choices.

Previously: Diabetes and nutrition: Healthy holiday eating tips, red meat and disease risk, and going vegetarian, Diabetes and nutrition: Why healthy eating is a key component of prevention and management, Diabetes self-management program helps at-risk teens and their families make healthier choices and New evidence for a direct sugar-to-diabetes link, Examining how diet soft drinks impact your health

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