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Health and Fitness, Orthopedics, Videos

Director of Stanford Runner’s Injury Clinic discusses advances in treating six common running injuries

Director of Stanford Runner's Injury Clinic discusses advances in treating six common running injuries

Running, as many athletes and fitness fanatics are well aware of, can often lead to foot, knee and hip injuries as a result of repetitive overload. But many of the aches and pains that nag runners can be easily avoided and remedied.

In the above Stanford Health Care video, Michael Fredericson, MD, director of the Stanford Runner’s Injury Clinic and head team physician with the Stanford Sports Medicine Program since 1992, provides an overview of prevention and treatment strategies for six of the most common running injuries. He also describes advancements in non-surgical treatment options for patients who don’t respond to standard therapies.

Previously: Director of Stanford Runner’s Injury Clinic discusses treating and preventing common injuries, Watching your phone or tablet while working out may diminish form, Stanford physician discusses prevalence of overuse injuries among college athletes and A closer look at how stretching may benefit the body

Cancer, Genetics, Stanford News, Videos, Women's Health

Stanford specialists discuss latest advancements in breast cancer screening and treatment

Stanford specialists discuss latest advancements in breast cancer screening and treatment

Invasive breast cancer will affect one in eight women in the United States during their lifetime. Many women, and men, may believe that if they don’t have a family history of breast cancer, then they’re not at risk of developing the disease. However, this is a common myth: About 90 percent of patients diagnosed with the disease have no family history of breast cancer.

But the good news is that breast cancer detected in the early stages can be very effectively treated. Additionally, breast-cancer death rates have been falling over the past 25 years as a result of increased awareness, improvements in treatments and earlier detection.

During a recent Stanford Health Library talk, captured in the above video, breast-cancer specialists discussed the latest advancements in genetic testing, diagnostic imaging, reconstructive surgery and treatments and adjunct therapies to surgery.

Previously: Don’t hide from breast cancer – facing it early is key, Despite genetic advances, detection still key in breast cancer and Ask Stanford Med: Radiologist responds to your questions about breast cancer screening

Cancer, Stanford News, Videos

Evidence-based tips and tools for helping cancer survivors manage fatigue

Evidence-based tips and tools for helping cancer survivors manage fatigue

There are an estimated 14.5 million cancer survivors in the United States, and this figure is expected to grow to almost 19 million in the next decade, according to the latest data (.pdf) from American Cancer Society.

At a recent Stanford Health Library talk, Kelly Bugos, a nurse practitioner and manager of the Stanford Cancer Survivorship Program, discussed managing fatigue, one of the most common side effects of cancer treatment. The above video offers an overview of the many cause of cancer-related fatigue, a discussion of how nutrition and exercise can help boost patients’ energy levels, and evidence-based tips and tools to help survivors feel more energetic and focused.

Previously: Practicing Qigong may help older prostate cancer survivors fight fatigue, pilot study finds, Dramatic increase in number of older cancer survivors expected and Stanford-developed fitness program helps improve cancer survivors’ quality of life

Chronic Disease, Health and Fitness, Videos

The importance of regular exercise in delaying and treating diabetes

The importance of regular exercise in delaying and treating diabetes

Looking for motivation to exercise regularly? Consider this statistic: People who engage in physical activity for seven hours a week have a 40 percent lower risk of dying early than those who are active for 30 minutes or less a week. Among the many health benefits bestowed is helping prevent and manage diabetes.

In this Stanford Health Care video, Baldeep Singh, MD, a clinical professor at Stanford who focuses on chronic disease management, explains how exercise can lower blood sugar during your workout and afterwards and help insulin work better. He says in the talk:

[Exercise] is one of the most important things that you can do as you get older because it really has all plus and no minuses … One of the keys is consistency. You want to be consistent in your regiment – even the same time of day … It’s much better to make small incremental changes and be consistent with them, than to make a huge change and than do nothing the rest of the year.

This video is the second lecture in a three-part series addressing important questions related to diabetes and lifestyle choices.

Previously: Examining the role of exercise in managing and preventing diabetesWithout exercise, Americans are growing more obese, according to Stanford researchers, Preventing pre-diabetes from turning into diabetes and Fighting a fatalistic attitude toward diabetes 

Nutrition, Stanford News, Videos

Stanford dietitian explains how – not just what – you eat matters

Stanford dietitian explains how - not just what - you eat matters

Recent posts, including this one from last week and this one from earlier today, offered sound advice to help avoid overeating around the holidays. Of course, we all know that at times we overindulge. But Stanford’s Neha Shah, a registered dietitian with expertise in digestive issues that affect nutritional intake, knows that how we eat is important, too; it’s not just about what we put in our stomachs, but how we do that. In this Stanford Health Care video, titled “How You Eat Matters,” sit back and learn some techniques that might just make your digestive system much happier. And you, too, of course.

Previously: Easy-to-follow tips to avoid overeating this holiday

Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford News, Videos

Stanford patient benefits from total artificial heart

Stanford patient benefits from total artificial heart

Mechanical support for failing hearts is not a new idea. Size, however, matters. In 1966, Michael DeBakey, MD, successfully implanted the first device to replace the pumping action on the left side of the heart. Now, at medical centers like Stanford, the LVAD, or left ventricular assist device, about 3 inches long, is a workhorse that enables many people with heart disease to live a normal life. Sure, if you have an LVAD implanted in your chest, you have to wear a power pack and a reserve power pack outside your body, but most find that burden acceptable. Your heart also remains in your body. If the whole heart is failing, that’s another matter.

In 1969, Denton Cooley, MD, removed Haskell Karp’s diseased heart and replaced it with an artificial one intended only to keep the 47-year-old alive for the three days it took to find an appropriate human heart for transplant. He died two days after that transplant. The heart was driven by an air pump the size of a washing machine. By 1983, when William DeVries, MD, put an artificial heart in Barney Clark’s chest, it was because Clark was too sick for a transplant. The pump supporting the artificial heart was still the size of a washing machine. Clark would never be able to leave his hospital room even to walk down a hospital hallway. He died 112 days later.

A little over a year ago, Stanford cardiovascular surgeons removed the heart of chess teacher Vaness French. French had lived with heart disease for decades, altering his diet, upping his exercise, doing everything he could until one summer day in 2013, when he went into cardiac arrest at a baseball game. Luckily, he was with a friend who knew CPR and kept French alive. In the months before, his Stanford cardiologist, Dipanjee Banerjee, MD, had fine-tuned French’s medications and ablation had been tried to stabilize the atrial fibrillation French experienced frequently. Now, the only option to keep him alive was a human heart transplant or an artificial heart.

French’s survival until a transplant was available was seriously in doubt. French agreed to let a team of Stanford surgeons, led by Richard Ha, MD, implant an artificial one. Remarkably, in footage shot just two weeks after that implantation of the total artificial heart, French is up and around, albeit a bit slowly. The support machine for the artificial heart is now small and lightweight enough so he could leave his room, with a bit of help, of course. Two weeks later, even before he received a support machine so small and portable he would have been allowed to return home, the right human heart came French’s way. In the recently-released video above you can see an artificial heart implantation procedure – and hear how it changed French’s life.

Previously: “Liberated from LVAD support”: One patient’s story and Dick Cheney on his heart transplant: “It’s the gift of life itself”

Biomed Bites, In the News, Research, Stem Cells, Technology, Videos

“It gives me the chills just thinking about it”: Stanford researcher on the potential of stem cells

"It gives me the chills just thinking about it": Stanford researcher on the potential of stem cells

Welcome to the last Biomed Bites of 2014. We’ll be continuing this series next year — check each Thursday to meet more of Stanford’s most innovative biomedical researchers. 

If you watch this video and aren’t moved by the passion and conviction of Stanford biologist Margaret Fuller, PhD, then email me. Seriously, I’ll try to talk some sense into you. Because Fuller’s enthusiasm for biomedicine is downright contagious. This is a professor who you want to teach biology.

Fuller, a professor of developmental biology and of genetics, works with adult stem cells, and she’s palpably gleeful about their potential to improve the health of millions.

“I was really struck and inspired by a recent article in the New York Times,” Fuller says in the video above. She’s talking about “Human Muscle Regenerated with Animal Help,” a 2012 piece that told the story of Sgt. Ron Strang, a Marine who lost part of his quadriceps in Afghanistan. Yet here is Strang, walking, thanks to the donation of a extracellular matrix from a pig. This paper-like sheet secreted signals instructing his stem cells to come to the rescue and build new muscle. “It was amazing,” Strang told the Times reporter. “Right off the bat I could do a full stride, I could bend my knee, kick it out a little bit…”

“This is really amazing,” Fuller agrees. “It gives me the chills just thinking about it. This is the kind of knowledge and advances of the basic work that I do… The hope is that understanding those underlying mechanisms will allow people to design small molecules and other strategies that can be used to induce our own adult stem cells to be called into action for repair.”

Learn more about Stanford Medicine’s Biomedical Innovation Initiative and about other faculty leaders who are driving biomedical innovation here.

Previously: Center for Reproductive and Stem Cell Biology receives NIH boost, Why the competition isn’t adult vs. embryonic stem cells and Induced pluripotent stem cell mysteries explored by Stanford researchers

Chronic Disease, Stanford News, Videos

A primer on preventing or delaying type 2 diabetes

A primer on preventing or delaying type 2 diabetes

Diabetes affects an estimated 29 million Americans, and one in four people don’t know they have the disease, according to the latest data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Stanford Health Library recently held a three-part lecture series about preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes. A the first event, Stanford primary care doctor Bryant Lin, MD, shared with the audience that diabetes is “a topic near and dear to his heart” and that he deals with the disease “in both his personal life and clinical life.” Lin’s family medical history puts him at high risk for the disease: His mother, her six siblings and his maternal grandparents were all diagnosed with diabetes. On the clinical side, he treats diabetic patients at Stanford Health Care.

In the above video, Lin provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk-assessment and diagnosis of diabetes.

This video is the first lecture in a three-part series addressing important questions related to diabetes and lifestyle choices.

Previously: Diabetes and nutrition: Healthy holiday eating tips, red meat and disease risk, and going vegetarian, Diabetes and nutrition: Why healthy eating is a key component of prevention and management and Examining the role of exercise in managing and preventing diabetes

Mental Health, Stanford News, Videos

Workaholics vs work engagement: The difference is play

Workaholics vs work engagement: The difference is play

In a culture that places high value on “hard work,” we often lionize the wrong kind of work. A new study from the Journal of Management explores the difference between “workaholics” and “work engagement” – the former has serious negative consequences for health and social relationships, just like any addiction, while the latter actually has overwhelmingly positive effects. And when people are healthier and happier, they’re also more productive at work. Malissa Clark, PhD, one of the study’s authors, was quoted in UGA Today:

We see that there are two very different constructs. One is feeling driven to work because of an internal compulsion, where there’s guilt if you’re not working—that’s workaholism. The other feeling is wanting to work because you feel joy in work and that’s why you go to work everyday, because you enjoy it. And I say that is work engagement.

Stanford alum Brendan Boyle, MS, knows how to enjoy work, and teaches his audience in this Stanford+Connects video. The secret is play.

Boyle, who teaches at the d.school (School of Design), is an expert on the interaction between play and design thinking. He asserts that the opposite of play is not work, but boredom. Play is not frivolity, but a certain set of behaviors that can be incorporated into a multitude of tasks, whether at work or at home. Play can be, in a sense, a way of interacting with the world.

Watch the video to learn more – it ends with laughter.

Genetics, NIH, Research, Videos

DNA origami: How our genomes fold

DNA origami: How our genomes fold

Here’s an interesting factoid about our genomes: If you stretched out the DNA in a single cell, which is only a few millionths of an inch wide, it would span more than six feet. And another: DNA folding is a dynamic process that changes over time. Scientists have been trying to understand how DNA folds itself up so efficiently, and a recent post on the NIH Director’s Blog highlights new research illustrating how the human genome folds inside the cell’s nucleus, as well as how DNA folding affects gene regulation. The research team created this delightful video that demonstrates the principles involved using origami art.

Researchers have been working to determine how cells regulate gene expression for nearly as long as we’ve known about DNA. How, for example, do nerve cells know to turn off only nerve cell genes and turn off bone cell genes? DNA folding loops are part of the answer. This research team, which published their findings in a paper in Cell yesterday, found that the number of loops is much lower than expected. There are only 10,000 loops instead of the predicted millions, and they form on/off switches in DNA. As explained in the blog post:

[The] paper in Cell adds fascinating details to that map, and it confirms that DNA loops appear to play a crucial role in gene regulation. The researchers found that many stretches of DNA with the potential to fold into loops have genes located at one end and, at the other end, novel genetic switches. When a loop forms, placing a hidden switch in contact with a once-distant gene, the gene is turned on or off. In fact, the mapping work uncovered thousands of these “secret” switches within the genome—information that may provide valuable new clues for understanding cancer and many other complex, common diseases.

Previously: DNA architecture fascinates Stanford researcher – and dictates biological outcomes

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