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Women’s Health

Parenting, Sleep, Women's Health

What other cultures can teach us about managing postpartum sleep deprivation

What other cultures can teach us about managing postpartum sleep deprivation

New_mom_072114Prior to becoming a mom, I felt fully confident that caring for a newborn would be less demanding than, or at least equal to, the physically grueling trainings from my college soccer days or my sleepless year of graduate school. But I soon learned that both of these experiences paled in comparison to the exhaustion I encountered after the arrival of my 8-pound-plus bundle of joy. So I was interested to read a recent Huffington Post blog entry from the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine examining how mothers in other countries cope with postpartum sleep deprivation.

In the entry, Mara Cvejic, MD, a neurologist at the University of Florida and former sleep medicine fellow at Stanford, notes that although sleep deprivation can profoundly affect cognitive function and mood, the brain of a postpartum mom is actually growing. She writes:

… despite all the formidable evidence of sleep deprivation in the everyday person, the scientific evidence of what happens to the postpartum brain is positively astounding — it thrives. A study published by the National Institutes of Health in 2010 actually shows that a mother’s brain grows from just 2-4 weeks to 3-4 months post delivery without any significant learning activities. The gray matter of the parietal lobe, pre-frontal cortex, hypothalamus, substantia nigra, and amygdala all form new connections and enlarge to a small degree. The imaging study confirms what animal studies have shown in the past — that these brain regions responsible for complex emotional judgment and decision-making actually bulk up with use. Rationale to the study shows that mothers who have positive interactions with their offspring — soothing, nurturing, feeding, and caring for them — are performing a mental exercise of sorts. Their learned coping skills in the face of novel child-rearing actually muscularize their brain.

She goes on to outline how new moms from Bulgaria to Sweden, and everywhere in between, turn to “hammocks, spa treatments, hired help, warm foods, arctic cradles, and cardboard” to cope with a lack of sleep. Personally, I’m in favor of Americans adopting this Malaysian tradition:

Food and warmth are also a focus of the Malaysian confinement of pantang. Steeped in the belief that the women’s life force is her fertile womb, she undergoes a 44-day period of internment to focus on relaxation, hot stone massage, lulur (full body exfoliation), herbal baths, and hot compresses. Typically a bidan, what can only be described as a live-in midwife and nanny combined, is hired to attend on the new mother. This is sometimes a family member, such as her mother or mother-in-law.

Previously: The high price of interrupted sleep on your health, What are the consequences of sleep deprivation? and Study: Parents may not be as sleep-deprived as they think
Photo by sean dreilinger

Parenting, Pregnancy, Technology, Women's Health

First-time moms often seek information online prior to first prenatal visit

First-time moms often seek information online prior to first prenatal visit

pregnant_laptopWhen I was eight weeks pregnant with my first child, I walked into my obstetrician’s office for my initial prenatal visit. I vividly remember being exhausted and sucking on watermelon lollipops for the entire two-hour appointment in an effort to relieve my morning sickness. While in the office, a nurse handed me a thick folder stuffed with various pamphlets and fact sheets on everything from nutrition to genetic testing – but much of the information reviewed wasn’t new to me. I’d already logged plenty of hours online reading about such topics.

So I was interested to read today about findings of a Penn State study showing that many other first-time moms also turn to “Dr. Google,” as well as social media, to find answers during the early weeks of their pregnancy. Women also continued turning to the Internet for information after their doctor visit and found traditional literature lacking. From a release on the study, which appears in the Journal of Medical Internet Research:

Following the women’s first visit to the obstetrician, many of them still turned to the internet—using both search engines and social media—to find answers to their questions, because they felt the literature the doctor’s office gave them was insufficient.

Many of the participants found the pamphlets and flyers that their doctors gave them, as well as the once-popular book What to Expect When You’re Expecting, outdated and preferred receiving information in different formats.

They would rather watch videos and use social media and pregnancy-tracking apps and websites.

“This research is important because we don’t have a very good handle on what tools pregnant women are using and how they engage with technology,” says [Jennifer Kraschnewski, MD]. “We have found that there is a real disconnect between what we’re providing in the office and what the patient wants.”

Noting the prevalence of misinformation online, Kraschnewski added, “We need to find sound resources on the Internet or develop our own sources” [to refer patients to].

Previously: Text message reminders shown effective in boosting flu shot rates among pregnant women and Examining the effectiveness of text4baby service
Photo by Adam Selwood

Pain, Pregnancy, Stanford News, Women's Health

Study shows women prefer less-intense pain at the cost of a prolonged labor

Study shows women prefer less-intense pain at the cost of a prolonged labor

child_birthAs a friend’s due date approached, she confided in me that the thought of going into labor was terrifying. It was her first pregnancy and we debated at length the pros and cons of having an epidural for pain management. Her main concern, like others, was that the common method of pain relief could prolong labor. Recent findings have shown that an epidural can lengthen the second-stage of labor for more than two hours.

In the end, she decided her birth plan needed to be flexible and include the option of an epidural, regardless of how it may impact the length of her labor. New research shows many would agree. Brendan Carvalho, MBBCh, chief of obstetric anesthesia at Stanford and lead author of the study, told Reuters that “Interestingly, intensity is the driver” behind women’s labor preferences.

More from the article:

For the study, Carvalho and his colleagues gave a seven-item questionnaire to expectant mothers who had arrived at the hospital to have labor induced but were not yet having painful contractions. The women took the survey a second time within 24 hours of giving birth.

The questionnaire pitted hypothetical pain level, on a scale of zero to 10, against hours of labor.

A sample question asked, “Would you rather have pain intensity at two out of 10 for nine hours or six out of 10 for three hours?”

Both pre- and post-labor, women on average preferred less intense pain over a longer duration, according to results published in the British Journal of Anaesthesia.

Previously: From womb to world: Stanford Medicine Magazine explores new work on having a baby
Photo by Mamma Loves

Global Health, Health Disparities, Pregnancy, Research, Women's Health

In poorest countries, increase in midwives could save lives of mothers and their babies

In poorest countries, increase in midwives could save lives of mothers and their babies

midwifeThe World Health Organization reports that most maternal deaths are preventable; yet, preterm birth complications rank among the top 10 causes of death in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Two recent studies from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have explored the role skilled midwives may play in saving the lives of women and their babies in poor counties.

In one study, published in The Lancet, researchers found that deploying a small number of midwives – 10 percent more every five years through 2025 – in the world’s 26 poorest countries could stave off a quarter of the maternal, fetal and infant deaths there.

From a release:

The estimates were done using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST), a computer-based tool developed by Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health researchers that allows users to set up and run multiple scenarios to look at the estimated impact of different maternal, child and neonatal interventions for countries, states or districts. For this analysis, the tool compared the effectiveness of several different alternatives including increasing the number of midwives by varying degrees, increasing the number of obstetricians, and a combination of the two.

In the other study, published in PLOS One, researchers used the LiST tool in the world’s 58 poorest countries, where they found that 7 million maternal, fetal and newborn deaths will occur between 2012 and 2015. The release continues:

If a country’s midwife access were to increase to cover 60 percent of the population by 2015, 34 percent of deaths could be prevented, saving the lives of nearly 2.3 million mothers and babies.

The researchers say boosting coverage of midwives who provide family planning as well as pregnancy care to 60 percent of women would cost roughly $2,200 per death averted as compared to $4,400 for a similar increase in obstetricians. Midwives are cheaper to train and can handle interventions needed during uncomplicated deliveries, while obstetricians are needed when surgical interventions such as cesarean sections are necessary, [lead author Linda Bartlett, MD] says. Midwives can administer antibiotics for infections and medications to stimulate or strengthen labor, remove the placenta from a patient having a hemorrhage as well as handle many other complications that may occur in the mother or her baby.

Previously: Indonesia’s cash transfer programs are valuable, Stanford health fellow findsStudy cautions babies born at home may be at increased risk for health problemsSimple program shown to reduce infant mortality in African country and Should midwives take on risky deliveries?
Photo by Vinoth Chandar

Global Health, In the News, Pediatrics, Public Safety, Sexual Health, Women's Health

Stanford research shows rape prevention program helps Kenyan girls “find the power to say no”

Stanford research shows rape prevention program helps Kenyan girls "find the power to say no"

The San Francisco Chronicle has a great story today about a collaborative project that is reducing rape and sexual assault of impoverished girls in Kenya.

The story highlights the combined efforts of activists Jake Sinclair, MD, and his wife, Lee Paiva Sinclair, who founded nonprofit No Means No Worldwide to provide empowerment training to Kenayn girls, and the Stanford team that has been analyzing the results of their efforts. As we’ve described before, this work is a great example of the academic chops of Stanford experts’ being combined with on-the-ground activism to make a difference for an urgent real-world problem.

As the article explains:

The girls and hundreds of others like them have participated in a rape-prevention workshop created by Jake Sinclair and Lee Paiva, a San Francisco doctor and his artist wife who have been working in Kenya for 14 years.

Their program is working, and that’s not just according to the dozen or so testimonials online, the couple said. Two studies out of Stanford – one published in April this year, one the year before – have found that girls who have gone through the couples’ classes experience fewer sexual assaults after the workshops.

More telling, perhaps: More than half of the girls report using some tool they learned from the classes to protect themselves, from kicking a man in the groin to yelling at someone to stop.

“It’s great to see the girls just find their voice, to find the power to say ‘no,’ ” Sinclair said. “It’s so enlightening. You can see it in their eyes, that something’s changed.”

Stanford research scholar Clea Sarnquist, DrPH, who has played an important role in the project, adds:

“A lot of these girls are using voice and verbal skills first,” Sarnquist said. “That’s one of the key things, is teaching the girls that they have the right to protect themselves – that they have domain over their own bodies, and they have the right to speak up for their own self interest.”

The whole story is definitely worth a read.

Previously: Empowerment training prevents rape of Kenyan girls and Self-defense training reduces rapes in Kenya

Fertility, Research, Women's Health

PCOS linked with higher risk of type 2 diabetes even in young women who are not overweight, study finds

PCOS linked with higher risk of type 2 diabetes even in young women who are not overweight, study finds

Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome, which is present in 5 to 10 percent of women of childbearing age and is associated with reproductive and metabolic dysfunction, may be at higher risk for type 2 diabetes. Previous research has shown this correlation in women who are also overweight; now, an Australian study has shown that even young women with PCOS who are not overweight may be at a significantly higher risk for developing diabetes.

From a release:

Over 6000 women aged between 25-28 years were monitored for nine years, including 500 with diagnosed PCOS. The incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes was three to five times higher in women with PCOS. Crucially, obesity, a key trigger for type 2 diabetes, was not an important trigger in women with PCOS.

The women studied were aged 25-28 in 2003 and were followed over 9 years until age 34 to 37 years in 2012.

Findings from the large-scale epidemiological study were presented at the recent joint meeting of the International Society of Endocrinology and the Endocrine Society in Chicago.

“Our research found that there is a clear link between PCOS and diabetes,” study author Helena Teede, PhD, said in the release. “However, PCOS is not a well-recognised diabetes risk factor and many young women with the condition don’t get regular diabetes screening even pre pregnancy, despite recommendations from the Australian PCOS evidence based guidelines.”

Previously: Study shows bigger breakfast may help women with PCOS manage symptoms and NIH study suggests progestin in infertility treatment for women with PCOS may be counterproductive

Big data, Obesity, Pregnancy, Public Health, Women's Health

Maternal obesity linked to earliest premature births, says Stanford study

Maternal obesity linked to earliest premature births, says Stanford study

preemiefeetExpectant mothers who are obese before they become pregnant are at increased risk of delivering a very premature baby, according to a new study of nearly 1,000,000 California births.

The study, which appears in the July issue of Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, is part of a major research effort by the March of Dimes Prematurity Research Center at Stanford University School of Medicine to understand why 450,000 U.S. babies are being born too early each year. Figuring out what causes preterm birth is the first step in understanding how to prevent it, but in many cases, physicians have no idea why a pregnant woman went into labor early.

The new study focused on preterm deliveries of unknown cause, starting from a database of nearly every California birth between January 2007 and December 2009 to examine singleton pregnancies where the mother did not have any illnesses known to be associated with prematurity.

The researchers found a link between mom’s obesity and the earliest premature births, those that happen before 28 weeks, or about six months, of pregnancy. The obesity-prematurity connection was  stronger for first-time moms than for women having their second or later child. Maternal obesity was not linked with preterm deliveries that happen between 28 and 37 weeks of the 40-week gestation period.

From our press release about the research:

“Until now, people have been thinking about preterm birth as one condition, simply by defining it as any birth that happens at least three weeks early,” said Gary Shaw, DrPH, professor of pediatrics and the lead author of the new research. “But it’s not as simple as that. Preterm birth is not one construct; gestational age matters.”

The researchers plan to investigate which aspects of obesity might trigger very early labor. For example, Shaw said, the inflammatory state seen in the body in obesity might be a factor, though more work is needed to confirm this.

Previously: How Stanford researchers are working to understand the complexities of preterm birth, A look at the world’s smallest preterm babies and New research center aims to understand premature birth
Photo by Evelyn

Clinical Trials, Nutrition, Parenting, Pediatrics, Research, Women's Health

Stanford study investigates how to prevent moms from passing on eating disorders

Stanford study investigates how to prevent moms from passing on eating disorders

veggie-stirfryResearchers have known for some time that women who have previously had eating disorders face a special set of challenges when they begin feeding their own children: They may unintentionally pass on problematic eating behaviors to their kids.

Now a Stanford research team is studying how to help these moms. They are recruiting families with a child between the ages of 1 and 5 whose mother had anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder in the past. In the 16-week study, the researchers will work with both the mother and her partner to build healthy family interactions around food.

From our announcement about the study:

“The data on feeding practices of mothers who have had eating disorders are very worrying,” said Shiri Sadeh-Sharvit, PhD, a visiting scholar at Stanford who is leading the new study. “These mothers are good parents who want only the best for their children, but they struggle with eating-disorder thinking. It’s something that comes and blurs their parenting.”

Prior research has shown that mealtime conflict is more common in families in which the mother has had an eating disorder. These mothers may overfeed or underfeed their children, though underfeeding is more predominant. They also have more difficulty recognizing hunger and fullness cues in themselves and their children, which makes it harder for them to help their kids learn to respond to these sensations. Children whose mothers have had eating disorders are more likely than other kids to be dissatisfied with their bodies and engage in emotional eating, binge eating or restrictive eating.

Sadeh-Sharvit is collaborating with James Lock, MD, PhD, who has a long track record of demonstrating the effectiveness of eating-disorder treatments that involve the patient’s family in the treatment process.

Local families who are interested in participating in the research can contact Sadeh-Sharvit at (650) 497-4949 or shiri_sade@yahoo.com for more information. Stanford’s Eating Disorders Research Program also maintains an online list of all of their eating-disorder studies that are currently seeking participants.

Previously: Promoting healthy eating and a positive body image on college campuses, A growing consensus for revamping anorexia nervosa treatment and Story highlights need to change the way we view and diagnose eating disorders in men
Photo by Indiana Public Media

Events, Mental Health, Public Health, Research, Stanford News, Women's Health

Promoting healthy eating and a positive body image on college campuses

Promoting healthy eating and a positive body image on college campuses

IMG_2764rtshEncouragement to focus on physical appearance in our culture often fuels negative body image and eating disorders. College students can be particularly susceptible to body image issues, and a past survey shows that eating disorders among college students have risen to affect 10 to 20 percent of women and four to 10 percent of men.

To create a social environment where healthy eating and a positive body image are the norm, Connie Sobczak and Elizabeth Scott established The Body Positive initiative in 1996. The program provides youth and adults with tools and strategies to overcome self-destructive eating and exercise behaviors. This past year, the women worked with a group of Stanford students and staff members to change cultural beliefs of beauty and health on campus.

In celebration of the student-led movement, The Body Positive is hosting an event at the Stanford Women’s Center this Sunday. During the event, attendees will be able to view students’ art, hear them sing and speak out in celebration of their authentic beauty and learn more about their projects to support positive body attitudes. Below Scott discusses The Body Positive model, research at Stanford to measure the effectiveness of the approach, and ways that parents, educators and others can support young adults in developing a healthy body image.

What is it about the college experience that leads students be so critical of their body image and to struggle with eating disorders?

Students report many messages in the college environment that promote a preoccupation with body image and dieting — two risk factors in the development of an eating disorder. In the student community at college, there are a plethora of messages questioning students’ ability to trust their own bodies and promoting the idea that everyone can, and should, transform the size and shape of their bodies to meet a very slender ideal. Both men and women are susceptible to these messages. Women, however, are also trained to be ashamed of their appetites and ambitions and to shrink themselves and their passions. These messages are strengthened by peers who are also afraid that they are not okay as they are, especially freshman who are separated from their family and out in the world alone for the first time feeling uncertain about how to take care of themselves.

What motivated you and Connie to launch The Body Positive?

We founded The Body Positive to prevent eating disorders by teaching youth and adults to experience self-love, inhabit their unique beauty, and listen to the voice of wisdom within to guide sustainable, joyful self-care. Ultimately, our work is about freeing all people to pursue their life purpose and passions. Connie survived an eating disorder and then lost a sister to body hatred. She was motivated to change the world so her daughter, and all children, could grow up loving themselves and seeing beauty in their unique bodies. I was overwhelmed by the suffering of the people I was seeing as a new therapist in my practice in Marin County. I was shocked (and still am) to see so many young people suffering with body hatred and eating disorders and losing years of their lives. Being a social worker and an activist, I was motivated to transform the culture so that people could let go of the fruitless pursuit of transforming their bodies.

What advice can you offer to help parents, educators or others in establishing a social climate where healthy eating, a positive body image and excellent self-care are the norm?

Learn the Body Positive competencies! Learn to cultivate mercy for your impermanent and ever-changing body. Be a role model of self-love, especially to your children. Learn to be generous with yourself and develop peaceful, sustainable self-care behaviors so that you can gently return to balance when you are out of balance. Explore the ways your ancestors are represented in the natural size and shape of your body and celebrate those amazing survivors instead of fighting them. Trust the authority of your own body and test everyone else’s ideas about how you should take care of it against your own experience, like a true scientist. If you do all this you will be a great role model for others and that is the best way to create body positive community.

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Cancer, Fertility, Parenting, Pregnancy, Women's Health

A cancer survivor discusses the importance of considering fertility preservation prior to treatment

pregnancy_testBack in 1998, Joyce Reinecke, JD, was on a cross-country business trip when her increasing fatigue and lightheadedness resulted in her being admitted to the emergency room and the discovery that she had tumors in her stomach, one of which was necrotic and bleeding causing her to be severely anemic. She was diagnosed with leiomyosarcoma, and the tumors, as well as all of the surrounding lymph nodes, were surgically removed. Before she was discharged from the hospital an oncology fellow casually mentioned to Reinecke that since she was scheduled to start chemotherapy she might want to consider options to preserve her fertility.

At the time, Reinecke and her husband hadn’t considered how her treatment would affect their future plans to have a family. The couple eventually decided to complete a round of in vitro fertilization and work with an agency to select a gestational carrier. Their twin daughters were born in February 2000. Reinecke, executive director of the Alliance for Fertility Preservation, shared her patient perspective during a keynote speech at the Family Building After Cancer: Fertility Preservation and Future Options Symposium held at Stanford earlier this month.

To continue the conversation, I reached out to Reinecke about the issue of fertility and cancer survivorship. In the following Q&A, she discusses advancements in the field, why patients need to be proactive in sharing their wishes to have a family with providers, and questions to consider prior to treatment.

What motivated you to focus your career on expanding patient and provider awareness of fertility preservation?

When my girls were around two, I received several inquiries from family acquaintances who had young adults in their lives who were newly diagnosed with cancer. These people had reached out to my parents, to try to understand more about what I had done, where I had gone, etc. in order to preserve my fertility. In speaking to others and hearing about their challenges in finding fertility information and services, I started to really feel that something about the status quo was not right. These patients/family members had learned about possible infertility because they knew of my story, not because their doctors had discussed it with them. This really emphasized to me that my situation – learning about my possible infertility in a very ad hoc way – was not unique, not unusual, but the norm, and perhaps, lucky.

I began doing research around the issue, to see what was out there, what information was available online, etc. I found very little, but I did stumble upon information that Fertile Hope was having a fundraiser. I was in complete shock that a new nonprofit focused on this very issue existed, not to mention that it was based in New York. I went to the fundraiser, signed up to volunteer, met with Lindsay Beck, and signed on as Employee #2. The rest is history.

A past study shows that less than half of U.S. physicians are following the American Society of Clinical Oncology’s guidelines suggesting all patients of childbearing age be informed about fertility preservation. How can patients make sure they get the necessary information about their fertility options prior to treatment?

This question is tricky, because I feel like the onus for initiating this discussion has to be on the provider. Newly diagnosed patients are overwhelmed with all sorts of medical information and decisions to make, not to mention the emotional distress of the diagnosis. Also, patients don’t know what they don’t know. Sometimes providers mistakenly believe a patient isn’t interested in fertility preservation because they don’t ask about it. However, providers have to remember that newly diagnosed young adults probably have very little understanding about how chemotherapy and radiation work – unless they have a cancer that has a direct impact on their reproductive system they probably have no inkling that their fertility is at stake.

That being said, patients need to advocate in their own interest (or enlist a family member to help them do this if they cannot during this difficult time). That means communicating their wishes and values about future parenthood with their providers. That means asking the right questions: Will I be able to have children in a few years? Ever? What can I do about it? It might also mean being able to challenge their doctor’s disapproval or ask that treatment be pushed back [so the patient has time to] bank sperm or eggs. Which is sometimes hard to do.

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