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Aging, Cancer, Dermatology, Genetics, Research, Stanford News

Genetic secrets of youthful skin

Genetic secrets of youthful skin

new hatEvery year, upwards of $140 billion a year gets spent on cosmetics. In the United States alone, says an authoritative report, a recent year saw upwards of 5.6 million Botox procedures, 1.1 million chemical peels, almost a half-million laser skin procedures, 196,286 eyelid surgeries and a whole bunch of face lifts.

If you’ve got the courage to compare your present-tense face with the one you were wearing 20 or even 10 years ago, you’ll see why. As I wrote in a just-published Stanford Medicine article, “Wither youth?”:

The terrain of aging skin grows all too familiar with the passing years: bags under the eyes, crow’s feet, jowls, tiny tangles of blood vessels, ever more pronounced pores and pits and pigmentation irregularities. Then there are wrinkles — long, deep “frown lines” radiating upward from the inside edges of the eyebrows and “laugh lines” that trace a furrow from our nostrils to the edges of our lips in our 40s, and finer lines that start crisscrossing our faces in our 50s. Sagging skin gets more prominent in our later years as we lose bone and fat.

“And,” I added wistfully, “it’s all right there on the very outside of us, where everyone else can see it.”

Stanford dermatologist Anne Chang, MD, who sees a whole lot of skin, got to wondering: Why does skin grow old? Armed with a sophisticated understanding of genetics, she went beyond lamenting lost youth and resolved to address the question scientifically, asking: “Can you turn back time? Can aging effects be reversed? Can you rejuvenate skin, make it young again?”

The answers she’s come up with so far – from hereditary factors to a possible underlying genetic basis for how some treatments now in common commercial cosmetic use (such as broadband light therapy) could potentially slow or even reverse the aging of skin – are described in my magazine article.

Previously: This summer’s Stanford Medicine magazine shows some skinResearchers identify genetic basis for rosacea, New study: Genes may affect skin youthfulness and Aging research comes of age
Photo by thepeachpeddler

Grand Roundup

Grand Roundup: Top posts of June

Grand Roundup: Top posts of June

It’s time to look back at this month’s five-most read stories on Scope. They were:

Eating for good blood: Tips for boosting iron levels and hemoglobin: This entry from the Stanford Blood Center discusses hemoglobin levels and offers ways to boost levels prior to blood donation.

New recommendation: Adults need at least 7 hours of sleep each night: How much sleep is needed for adults? A new set of recommendations was published in the journal SLEEP and developed by 15 sleep experts in a consensus panel assembled by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society.

CRISPR marches forward: Stanford scientists optimize use in human blood cells: CRISPR is a breakthrough way of editing the genome of many organisms, including humans — a kind of biological cut-and-paste function that is already transforming scientific and clinical research. New work in this area is detailed here.

To live longer, men need to embrace their femininity, new research suggests: Women live longer than men, but when faced with socio-economic adversity, that lifespan gap grows, according to new research from a team of Stanford scientists.

Stanford med student/HHMI fellow investigates bacteriophage therapy as an alternative to antibiotics: In this piece, second-year medical student Eric Trac discusses the work he’s doing for his year-long Howard Hughes Medical Institute fellowship.

Our most-shared story of the month: New recommendation: Adults need at least 7 hours of sleep each night

And still going strong – the most popular post from the past:

What are the consequences of sleep deprivation?: Brandon Peters, MD, an adjunct clinical faculty member at the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine, explains how lack of sleep can negatively affect a person’s well-being in this Huffington Post piece.

Behavioral Science, Health and Fitness, Mental Health, Public Health, Research, Stanford News

Exposure to nature helps quash depression – so enjoy the great outdoors!

Exposure to nature helps quash depression - so enjoy the great outdoors!


hiking_news-1

Walking is good for your health. But walking somewhere natural is even better, according to a new Stanford-led study.

Study participants who walked in a natural area for 90 minutes showed less activity in a brain region associated with depression than those who walked through a city or other urban area, a Stanford News story states. From the piece:

“These results suggest that accessible natural areas may be vital for mental health in our rapidly urbanizing world,” said co-author Gretchen Daily, the Bing Professor in Environmental Science and a senior fellow at the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment. “Our findings can help inform the growing movement worldwide to make cities more livable, and to make nature more accessible to all who live in them.”

Even further, the research supports — but does not prove — a link between urbanization and growing rates of mental illness, said co-author James Gross, PhD, a professor of psychology.

The researchers had one group of participants walk in a grassland with oak trees and shrubs. The other group walked along a traffic-clogged four-lane road. They then measured heart and respiration rates, performed brain scans and had the participants answer a series of questions. The results showed that:

Neural activity in the subgenual prefrontal cortex, a brain region active during rumination – repetitive thought focused on negative emotions – decreased among participants who walked in nature versus those who walked in an urban environment.

Evidence that supports the knowledge you’ve had since grade school: The outdoors really can make you feel better.

Previously: To get your creative juices flowing, start movingA look at the effects of city living on mental health and Out-of-office autoreply: Reaping the benefits of nature
Photo by Linda A. Cicero/Stanford News Service

Health and Fitness, Pediatrics, Research, Sports

Female high-school athletes suffer more overuse injuries than their male counterparts

Female high-school athletes suffer more overuse injuries than their male counterparts

When I was younger, the prevailing parenting advice regarding athletics and children was to identify a sport your child would enjoy early on and have them focus on it throughout adolescent so she would have a competitive edge. Which is how I ended up playing on a boys soccer team at the age of five — there were no all-girls soccer teams in Austin, Texas in 1983. Soccer continued to be my sole sport throughout high school and college. Eventually, I had to give it up because the constant ankle injuries I endured meant I spent more time in rehab mode than training mode.

Never once did a physician or a trainer suspect that the injuries were related to overuse, despite the long hours I logged on running paths, in the weight room and on the field. So I was interested to read about recent research showing that girls are at a much higher risk than boys when it comes to overuse injuries in high-school sports.

In the study, researchers at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center reviewed 3,000 male and female injury cases over a seven year period across 20 high-school sports including soccer, volleyball, gymnastics and lacrosse. According to a release:

[Researchers] found the highest rate of overuse injuries occurred in girls track (3.82), followed by girls field hockey (2.93) and girls lacrosse (2.73). Overuse injuries in boys were most found in swimming and diving (1.3).

“These young people spend more time playing sports both in competition and in practice. So, there’s a correlation there between the amount of time that they’re playing and the increased incidence of injuries,” said [Thomas Best, MD, PhD,] who is also a professor and Pomerene chair in Ohio State’s department of family medicine.

The participation and intensity of high school athletics has increased over the past decade. According to Best, some high school athletes spend more than 18 hours a week participating in athletics and many participate in multiple sports concurrently.

Watch the clip above to learn more about researchers’ findings and recommendations.

Previously: Researchers call for improvements to health screenings for female college athletes and Stanford physician discusses prevalence of overuse injuries among college athletes

Big data, BigDataMed15, Chronic Disease, Genetics, Videos

Parents turn to data after son is diagnosed with ultra-rare disease

Parents turn to data after son is diagnosed with ultra-rare disease

Keynote talks and presentations from the 2015 Big Data in Biomedicine conference at Stanford are now available on the Stanford YouTube channel. To continue the discussion of how big data can be harnessed to improve the practice of medicine and enhance human health, we’re featuring a selection of the videos on Scope.

Four years ago, Matthew Might, PhD, and his wife, Christina, learned that their son Bertrand was the first person to be diagnosed with ultra-rare genetic disorder called N-Glycanase Disorder. At the 2015 Big Data in Biomedicine conference at Stanford, Might recounted the story of his son’s medical odyssey and explained how a team of Duke University researchers used whole-exome sequencing, which is a protein-focused variant of whole-genome sequencing, on himself, his wife and Bertrand to arrive at his son’s diagnosis.

Watch the video above to find out how Might and his family, who turned a deaf ear to doctors’ advice that nothing could be done for their son, harnessed the power of the Internet to identify 35 more patients with the same disorder and are now leading the charge in helping scientists better understand the disorder.

Previously: Nobel Laureate Michael Levitt explains why “biology is information rich” at Big Data in Biomedicine, At Big Data in Biomedicine, Stanford’s Lloyd Minor focuses on precision health, Experts at Big Data in Biomedicine: Bigger, better datasets and technology will benefit patients, On the move: Big Data in Biomedicine goes mobile with discussion on mHealth and Big Data in Biomedicine panelists: Genomics’ future is bright

Events, Imaging, Neuroscience, Research

Physician-monk leads Stanford doctors in meditation

Physician-monk leads Stanford doctors in meditation

Kerzin and Verghese - smallAfter he finished his recent Grand Rounds talk here at the medical school, and before he opened the room to questions, physician Barry Kerzin, MD, asked the audience of doctors, residents, and a PBS film crew, to silence their cell phones, focus on their breath, and join him for five minutes of meditation.

It made sense because Kerzin, who provides medical care to His Holiness the Dalai Lama and is also a Buddhist monk, had just spent time explaining the central ideas of mindfulness meditation and highlighting the results from various scientific studies on brain changes and the benefits that mindfulness training can bring. Kerzin’s familiarity with the work comes partly from his participation in two of these studies.

As Stanford’s Abraham Verghese, MD, said when introducing Kerzin, many people in the audience may have had their work published in journals like Nature or PNAS, but “who has had [their] brain appear in one of these publications?”

Kerzin’s brain was part of research that compared those of long-term meditators (people who had clocked more than 10,000 hours meditating) to novices’ brains. MRI brain scans revealed increases in size and activity in Kerzin’s and the other monks’ prefrontal cortex, the part of the brain involved with planning and reasoning, as well as empathy and imagination. In one of the studies, Kerzin was hooked up to an EEG machine to demonstrate that when engaged in mindfulness meditation, his brain gave out bursts of high frequency signals called gamma waves, an unusual brain pattern thought to be linked to neural synchrony.

While these studies’ findings pertained to experienced meditators, Kerzin also presented a study where beginners were given either meditation training or health education for six weeks. At the end, when given a stress test, people in the meditation group produced statistically less stress hormones.

Although the most striking differences weren’t seen in beginning meditators, Kerzin also presented a study were volunteers where given either meditation training or health education for six weeks. At the end, when given a stress test, people in the meditation group produced statistically less stress hormones.

Last year I myself participated in a meditation study similar to the ones presented by Kerzin, although the final test in my case was an observation session of the participating parents’ interactions with their toddlers, and measuring stress hormone levels in both. That study hasn’t been published yet, but the subjective view of my husband is that I’m a lot calmer these days as a result of my continued meditation.

Given my experience, I wish I could say I rocked the group meditation at the talk, but I had a hard time concentrating. By focusing on my breathing I could mostly ignore the presentation and applause coming from the room next door. What was harder was blocking out my own thoughts, thoughts of the future – and specifically of writing this blog post. But overall, it was nice to take a moment and try to live in the present.

Kerzin’s talk, called “The science behind meditation,” is available here. Kerzin is also speaking on “Compassionate living” at a Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education event this evening; video of that talk will be available on the CCARE website in coming weeks.

Kim Smuga-Otto is a student in UC Santa Cruz’s science communication program and a writing intern in the medical school’s Office of Communication and Public Affairs.

Previous: What the world needs now: altruism/A conversation with Buddhist monk-author Matthieu Ricard, From suffering to compassion: Meditation teacher-author Sharon Salzberg shares her storyHis Holiness the 17th Karmapa discusses the nature of compassionResearch brings meditation’s health benefits into focus and 10% happier? Count me in!
Photo of Barry Kerzin (left) and Abraham Verghese by Margarita Gallardo

Genetics, In the News, Research, Science, Stanford News, Stem Cells, Technology

CRISPR marches forward: Stanford scientists optimize use in human blood cells

CRISPR marches forward: Stanford scientists optimize use in human blood cells

The CRISPR news just keeps coming. As we’ve described here before, CRISPR is a breakthrough way of editing the genome of many organisms, including humans — a kind of biological cut-and-paste function that is already transforming scientific and clinical research. However, there are still some significant scientific hurdles that exist when attempting to use the technique in cells directly isolated from human patients (these are called primary cells) rather than human cell lines grown for long periods of time in the laboratory setting.

Now pediatric stem cell biologist Matthew Porteus, MD, PhD, and postdoctoral scholars Ayal Hendel, PhD, and Rasmus Bak, PhD, have collaborated with researchers at Santa Clara-based Agilent Research Laboratories to show that chemically modifying the guide RNAs tasked with directing the site of genome snipping significantly enhances the efficiency of editing in human primary blood cells — an advance that brings therapies for human patients closer. The research was published yesterday in Nature Biotechnology.

As Porteus, who hopes to one day use the technique to help children with genetic blood diseases like sickle cell anemia, explained to me in an email:

We have now achieved the highest rates of editing in primary human blood cells. These frequencies are now high enough to compete with the other genome editing platforms for therapeutic editing in these cell types.

Porteus and Hendel previously developed a way to identify how frequently the CRISPR system does (or does not) modify the DNA where scientists tell it. Hendel characterizes the new research as something that will allow industrial-scale manufacturing of pharmaceutical-grade CRISPR reagents. As he told me:

Our research shows that scientists can now modify the CRISPR technology to improve its activity and specificity, as well as to open new doors for its use it for imaging, biochemistry, epigenetic, and gene activation or repression studies.

Rasmus agrees, saying, “Our findings will not only benefit researchers working with primary cells, but it will also accelerate the translation of CRISPR gene editing into new therapies for patients.”

Onward!

(Those of you wanting a thorough primer on CRISPR —how it works and what could be done with it — should check out Carl Zimmer’s comprehensive article in Quanta magazine. If you prefer to learn by listening (perhaps, as I sometimes do, while on the treadmill), I found this podcast from Radiolab light, but interesting.)

Previously: Policing the editor: Stanford scientists devise way to monitor CRISPR effectiveness and “It’s not just science fiction anymore”: Childx speakers talk stem cell and gene therapy

 

Events, Health and Fitness, Sports, Stanford News, Videos

Stanford Football team physician shares tips for staying healthy while working out

Stanford Football team physician shares tips for staying healthy while working out

Last month, more than 750 people gathered on the Stanford Medicine campus for the annual Health Matters event. There, Jason Dragoo, MD, team physician for Stanford Football and the U.S. Olympic Committee, delivered a talk about preventing injuries and improving fitness performance. As he explains in the above video, he and colleagues dramatically changed the conditioning program for football players over the last five years: gone is the traditional weight room packed with machines and racks and in its place is a training facility stocked with kettle bells, Pilates equipment, medicine balls, wooden sticks and core boards. As a result, the injury rate dropped more than 70 percent and the team’s success has skyrocketed. 

Watch Dragoo’s full presentation and learn how you can apply the workout tactics employed by Stanford Football to avoid injury and improve your own exercise regimen. And check out the Stanford Medicine YouTube channel for more Health Matters videos, including:

Previously: Stanford Medicine’s Health Matters event, in pictures and Stanford’s Health Matters happening on Saturday

Bioengineering, Cancer, Imaging, Microbiology, Research, Science, Stanford News

Stanford team develops technique to magnetically levitate single cells

Stanford team develops technique to magnetically levitate single cells

Remember the levitating frog? That feat — the levitation of a live frog using a powerful magnet — was awarded the 2000 Ig Nobel Prize. Fascinating to watch, the demonstration also cemented a longstanding belief that levitating anything smaller than 20 microns was flat-out impossible. Much less something alive.

Not so, a team of Stanford-based researchers showed in a paper published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). Using a 2-inch-long device made of two magnets affixed with plastic, the team showed it’s possible to levitate individual cells.

The video above demonstrates the technique in a population of breast cancer cells. Originally, the cells hover, suspended between the two magnets. But when exposed to an acid, they start to die and fall as their density increases.

“It has very broad implications in multiple diseases including cancer, especially for point-of-care applications where it can bring the central lab diagnostics to the comfort of patients’ homes or physicians’ office,” Utkan Demirci, PhD, a co-senior author and associate professor of radiology, told me.

The technique makes it possible to distinguish healthy cells from cancerous cells, monitor the real-time response of bacteria or yeast to drugs and distinguish other differences between cells that were thought to be homogenous, said Naside Gozde Durmus, PhD, a postdoctoral research fellow and first author of the paper.

Critically, the technique does not require treating the cells with antibodies or other markers, Durmus said. That ensures the cells are not altered by any treatments and makes the technique easy to use in a variety of settings, including potentially in physicians’ offices or in resource-poor settings.

The device works by balancing the gravitational mass of a cell against its inherent magnetic signature, which is negligible when compared with the cell’s density, Durmus said.

Interestingly, however, the cells — or bacteria treated with an antibiotic — do not die at the same rate, providing hints at their individual adaptations to environmental stressors, said co-senior author Lars Steinmetz, PhD, a professor of genetics.

To enhance the precision of the technique, the researchers can tweak the concentration of the solution that holds the cells, Durmus said. A highly concentrated solution allows for the differentiation of cells of similar densities, while a less concentrated solution can be used to examine a population of heterogeneous cells.

The team plans to investigate the applications of the device next, including its use in resource-poor settings where the cells can be observed using only a lens attached to an iPhone, Durmus said.

Previously: Harnessing magnetic levitation to analyze what we eat, Researchers develop device to sort blood cells with magnetic nanoparticles and Stanford-developed smart phone blood-testing device wins international award
Video courtesy of Naside Gozde Durmus

Cancer, Patient Care, Research, Stanford News

From petri dish to patient: Studying, treating – and trying to cure – less common cancers

From petri dish to patient: Studying, treating - and trying to cure - less common cancers

surviving melonomaIn 2015, more than 1.5 million Americans were diagnosed with cancer. Around forty percent of those new diagnoses were in three types of cancer — breast, lung, and prostate —  so it’s no surprise that those are the ones you hear about most often. But hundreds of thousands of new cancer patients each year are diagnosed with less common cancers, some affecting only a handful of patients a year. These are the diseases you don’t often hear about.

Before a few months ago, I have to admit that I didn’t know anything about cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). Each year, just a few thousand adults in the U.S. are diagnosed with the cancer, which often starts as an itchy, scaly rash — not the first thing that comes to mind when you think of classic cancer symptoms. Most people first learn about CTCL when they, or someone close to them, is diagnosed. I, on the other hand, started investigating it because I was writing about Stanford’s Cutaneous Lymphoma Group, which is spearheading research and new treatments of the disease.

At the same time, I was researching metastatic melanoma, the most advanced form of the skin cancer. While melanoma of any variety is relatively common (almost 75,000 new cases a year in the U.S.), only four percent of new diagnoses are the most severe, metastatic type. To understand both CTCL and metastatic melanoma, I spoke to patients being treated at Stanford clinics, doctors who specialize in the diseases, and researchers who study the cancers at the most basic molecular and genetic levels.

Science writers and scientists alike often justify research on rare diseases by explaining how we can learn about more common conditions through studying less common ones. But hearing about melanoma and CTCL — and how findings in the lab quickly trickle up to change clinical practice and save patients’ lives — it became ever clearer to me that research on these rarer cancers has an immeasurable impact all on its own. The clinicians I talked to were all avid proponents of integrating the latest research into their practices as soon as they could, and constantly tweaking their protocols to find the best ways to help patients. And each patient was able to get a new lease on life thanks to clinical trials and scientist-doctors willing to try new things.

To learn more about CTCL and metastatic melanoma, check out my features in the latest issue of Stanford Medicine magazine: “The rarest of rashes,” and “Surviving melanoma.”

Sarah C.P. Williams is an award-winning science writer covering biology, chemistry, translational research, medicine, ecology, technology and anything else that catches her eye.

Previously: This summer’s Stanford Medicine magazine shows some skinGene-sequencing rare tumors – and what it means for cancer research and treatmentA rare cancer survivor’s journey to thriving and advocatingHumble anti-fungal pill appears to have a noble side-effect: treating skin cancer and Raising awareness about rare diseases
Illustration by Matthew Bandsuch

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