Many people are deeply skeptical of foreign aid, believing that these monies often wind up in the pockets of corrupt leaders or never make it down the chain of bureaucracy to the people who really need it. But a new Stanford analysis of both government and private aid programs shows that health aid has been extremely effective not only in extending the lives of people in developing countries but also saving the lives of children under age 5.
Lead researcher Eran Bendavid, MD, said foreign aid programs had their biggest impact between 2000 and 2010, when investments in health reached their peak. During that time, the U.S. government launched its hugely successful initiative, the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), while other private groups, such as the Gates Foundation, stepped up investments in health as well.
During that time, low-income countries receiving aid saw a dramatic decline – between 26 and 34 percent - in the number of children who died before their 5th birthday. With just a 4 percent increase in aid, or $1 billion, foreign aid could continue to have a major impact on child mortality, Bendavid said.
“If health aid continues to be as effective as it has been, we estimate there will be 364,800 fewer deaths in children under 5,” Bendavid said. “We are talking about $1 billion, which is a relatively small commitment for developed countries.”
He said many people may find the results surprising. “But for me, it fits with other evidence of the incredible success of public health promotion in developing countries,” he said. For instance, he did a study in 2012 which found that more than 740,000 lives were saved between 2004 and 2008 in nine countries as a result of the PEPFAR program. Other technologies, such as diphtheria, tetanus, measles and polio vaccines for children and insecticide-treated bed nets to prevent malaria, all have contributed to better health among adults and children in low-income countries.
He and colleague Jay Bhattacharya, MD, PhD, also found that aid programs had a lasting impact. The signs of aid’s impact on child mortality were measurable for three years after aid was distributed, while the link between aid and longer life expectancy was detectable five years after aid was made available, the researchers reported.