Should every newborn baby girl be genetically screened to prevent breast cancer? Obviously, that isn't cost-effective — yet. But if it were, would it be worthwhile?
A previous study said no. But research published today in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention by Stanford researchers suggests otherwise.
Led by senior author Alice Whittemore, PhD, the team examined 86 gene variants known to increase the chances of breast cancer. They created a model that accounted for the prevalence of each variant and the associated risk of breast cancer. Each possible genome was then ranked by the likelihood of developing breast cancer within a woman's lifetime.
"It was quite a computational feat," Whittemore told me.
Working with Weiva Sieh, MD, PhD; Joseph Rothstein, PhD; and Valerie McGuire, PhD, the team found that the riskiest top 25 percent of gene combinations predicted 50 percent of all future breast cancers.. Those women would then have the opportunity to get regular mammograms, watch their diets and make childbearing and breast-feeding decisions with the awareness of their higher risk. Some women might even select, as Angelina Jolie did quite publicly, to have their breasts removed.
"The main takeaway message is we can be more optimistic than previously predicted about the value of genomic sequencing," Whittemore said. "But we still have a way to go in preventing the disease."
"Our ability to predict the probability of disease based on genetics is the starting point," Sieh said. "If a girl knew, from birth, what her inborn risk was, she could then make more informed choices to alter her future risk by altering her lifestyle factors. We also need better screening methods and preventative interventions with fewer side effects."
"We want to focus on those at the highest risk," Whittemore said.
Previously: Despite genetic advances, detection still key in breast cancer, NIH Director highlights Stanford research on breast cancer surgery choices and Breast cancer awareness: Beneath the pink packaging
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