Loneliness isn't healthy — most everyone knows that. But why exactly does isolation lead to disease, or even death? Stanford researcher Sylvia Kreibig, PhD, set out to answer that question by digging through data from the Heart and Soul Study, an inquiry that followed more than 1,000 coronary heart disease patients for about 10 years, starting in 2000.
Turns out that socially isolated patients are 61 percent more likely to die in any given year than other patients, Kreibig and her team found. Yet you don't need many friends to stave off the ill effects of solitude. Those with at least one to three regular contacts fared no better than the most-social butterfly. Even tossing in factors that affect mortality such as age and weight didn't affect general conclusion: friendless folks die sooner. But why?
Kreibig's team, which included Stanford psychologist James Gross, PhD, delved deeper to figure it out.
It isn't depression. Depression is independently related to mortality, but it couldn't explain the link between solitude and risk of death. Instead, Kreibig and colleagues found a strong link between several behavior factors such as smoking, omega-3 concentration (a representative of diet quality), and medication adherence and isolation.
"If you are more integrated, you have people around that look after you and care for you, making sure you're eating healthy foods, not smoking and taking medications as directed," Kreibig told me. "You yourself as a patient actually have a lot of control over factors that affect your health... Just by integrating some salmon into your diet, you have a better chance of survival."
The team classified 1,019 patients into four categories of social integration (low, medium, medium-high and high), based on whether or not they had a partner, strength of linkages with family and friends and membership in religious congregations and community groups. Patients in the low category were more likely to smoke, eat unhealthy foods and skip their medications, the study found.
She cautioned that the study, which appears in this month's issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, demonstrated correlation, not causation. In addition, the patients were primary male and, as they suffered from heart disease, could be affected differently than healthy, or younger, patients.
Next, Kreibig said she plans to examine the emotions related to social isolation and their effect on health.
Previously: The importance of human connection as part of the patient experience, How social media and online communities can improve clinical care for elderly patients and How loneliness can impact the immune system
Photo by Alex Krasavtsev