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Clinical Trials, NIH, Nutrition, Obesity, Research, Stanford News

Stanford seeks participants for weight-loss study

Stanford seeks participants for weight-loss study

Should diets come in different shapes and sizes? Stanford researchers are exploring that question and are seeking participants for a year-long weight-loss study that aims to understand why people may respond differently to the same diet. Titled “One Diet Does Not Fit All,” the study will examine how factors such as genetic influences and eating and sleeping habits have an impact on a diet’s effectiveness.

From a release:

Participants will be assigned randomly to either a very low-fat or very low-carbohydrate diet for 12 months. They will be required to attend weekly classes at Stanford for the first three months, once every other week for the following three months, and once a month for the remainder of the study. Participants must also be willing to have fasting blood samples drawn four times during the 12-month period and participate in online and written surveys. They will receive all test results at the end of the study.

The study is part of a five-year project funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Nutrition Science Initiative. Following an enrollment last year of 200, this spring researchers hope to enroll at least 135 men and women (pre-menopausal only) between the ages of 18 and 50 who are overweight or obese and are generally in good health.

For a complete list of inclusion criteria, click here. To determine eligibility for this study, complete a brief online survey. For more information, contact Jennifer Robinson at nutrition@stanford.edu.

Previously: How physicians address obesity may affect patients’ success in losing weight, To meet weight loss goals, start exercise and healthy eating programs at the same time, The trouble with the current calorie-counting system, Smaller plates may not be helpful tools for dieters, study suggests and Losing vitamins – along with weight – on a diet

Cancer, NIH, Public Health, Women's Health

Study shows daily aspirin could lower women’s risk of ovarian cancer

Study shows daily aspirin could lower women's risk of ovarian cancer

aspirinA team of researchers at the National Cancer Institute have conducted the largest study to date assessing the relationship between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and ovarian cancer risk. Their findings show that taking aspirin daily may lower women’s risk of ovarian cancer; however researchers caution that more studies are needed before clinical recommendations can be made.

In the study, researchers examined a dozen previous epidemiological studies that included roughly 8,000 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer and nearly 12,000 women who did not have the disease. According to an NCI release:

The researchers determined that participants who reported daily aspirin use had a 20 percent lower risk of ovarian cancer than those who used aspirin less than once per week. For non-aspirin NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), which include a wide variety of drugs, the picture was less clear: the scientists observed a 10 percent lower ovarian cancer risk among women who used NSAIDs at least once per week compared with those who used NSAIDs less frequently. However, this finding did not fall in a range that was significant statistically. In contrast to the findings for aspirin and NSAIDs, use of acetaminophen, which is not an anti-inflammatory agent, was not associated with reduced ovarian cancer risk.

This study comes on the heels of Stanford research showing that aspirin use appears to cut the risk of another type of cancer (melanoma) in women.

Previously: Can repackaging aspirin get more people to take it daily for prevention? and New research shows aspirin may cut melanoma risk
Photo by Chaval Brasil

NIH, Research, Stanford News

NIH selects Hannah Valantine as first chief officer for scientific workforce diversity

NIH selects Hannah Valantine as first chief officer for scientific workforce diversity

For the past eight years, Hannah Valantine, MD, has led efforts to foster diversity among faculty, staff and trainees at the School of Medicine. But soon she’ll start a new chapter and join the National Institutes of Health as the organization’s first chief officer for scientific workforce diversity.

As my colleague Susan Ipaktchian reports in today’s announcement, Valantine “will lead NIH efforts to diversify the biomedical research workforce by developing a comprehensive strategy to expand recruitment and retention, and promote inclusiveness and equity.”

Lloyd Minor, MD, dean of the School of Medicine, praised Valantine’s accomplishments in an e-mail to medical school faculty and staff. He wrote:

With vision and tenacity, Hannah has done so much to make Stanford Medicine a more diverse and inclusive community where innovation flourishes and equity is valued. Since Hannah took up her position in 2005, the representation of women at every rank—assistant, associate, and full professor—has increased to levels that now exceed national and peer benchmarks. Over the same time, the number of underrepresented minorities among our faculty has also increased. Much of this progress is with thanks to Hannah who has developed innovative initiatives and implemented a number of changes to our recruitment and retention strategies.

In a news release, NIH director Francis Collins, MD, PhD, welcomed Valantine to her newly appointed position saying, “Recruiting and retaining the brightest minds regardless of race, ethnicity, gender, disability and socioeconomic status is critically important not only to NIH, but to the entire U.S. scientific enterprise … Hannah possesses the experience, dedication and tenacity needed to move NIH forward on this critically important issue.”

Previously: Hannah Valantine: Leading the way in diversifying medicine and NIH awards aim to increase diversity in the sciences

Clinical Trials, Fertility, NIH, Research, Women's Health

Testosterone therapy not effective for primary ovarian insufficiency-related depression, study finds

Testosterone therapy not effective for primary ovarian insufficiency-related depression, study finds

Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), a condition affecting approximately 1 percent of women and teenage girls in the U.S., is characterized by ovaries that stop functioning normally before a woman is 40. POI may be a cause for irregular periods, reduced fertility, or health problems such as osteoporosis, and women with POI may also be at risk for depression and decreased quality of life. Treatments for POI may include hormone replacement therapy to restore estrogen and progesterone levels.

A recent study from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center has examined the effect in women with POI of one year of hormone treatment that included testosterone.

From a release:

In the randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study, 61 women used placebo patches and 67 women used patches that delivered 150 micrograms of testosterone a day, similar to the Intrinsa patch that was rejected by FDA as a treatment for low sexual desire in women.

After 12 months, testosterone levels were back up to normal for the women who got the treatment. The investigators saw no detrimental effects of testosterone, but they found no significant improvement either in measurements of quality of life, self esteem and mood compared with placebo.

Bringing testosterone back to normal doesn’t help these aspects of life, suggesting that it’s something other than testosterone that plays a role in mood problems for women with POI, concluded the researchers.

“This study makes an important contribution toward understanding what testosterone can and cannot do. With all the hype about testosterone and aging, it is important that the public have the facts,” NAMS Executive Director Margery Gass, MD, said in the release.

The study was published online in the journal Menopause.

Previously: An in-depth look at fertility and cancer survivorshipAsk Stanford Med: Expert in reproductive medicine responds to questions on infertility, Researchers describe procedure that induces egg growth in infertile women and Oh, baby! Infertile woman gives birth through Stanford-developed technique

LGBT, NIH, Public Health, Research

Study shows funding for LGBT health research lacking, offers solutions

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender patients often face a unique set of health risks, including higher rates of hepatitis among gay men and increased risk factors for breast cancer among lesbians. Past research conducted at Stanford highlighted the need to better train future physicians on how to care for the LGBT community. Now findings published in the American Journal of Public Health show national funding for LGBT medical research is also lacking, which is contributing to health inequities for patients.

During the study (subscription required), researchers examined studies funded by the the National Institutes of Health between 1989 and 201 and found 628 pertained to LGBT health issues, which accounts for one-half of one percent of all studies supported by the institute. A significant portion of these studies focused on sexual health matters, including HIV/AIDS, and the majority related to health of sexual minority men. Studies unrelated to sexual health matters accounted for one tenth of one percent of all studies during this time period.

In a release, study authors made the following recommendations to boost funding for LGBT studies and reduce inequalities in care:

  • Establish policies that designate LGBT people as priority populations for research that goes beyond HIV/AIDS and sexual health issues.
  • Increase evidence-based intervention research to improve LGBT and reduce health inequities.
  • Explore new strategies to increase the amount of LGBT health research, including support for diversity among researchers.
  • Support efforts to expand the pool of trained researchers prepared to propose LGBT research projects through training grants, fellowships, career awards and the establishment of LGBT Centers of Excellence.

Previously: Study finds ER avoidance in transgender individuals needing careGay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered health issues not being taught in medical school and A call for more training on LGBT health issues

Aging, Complementary Medicine, Health and Fitness, NIH, Orthopedics, Research

Measuring the physical effects of yoga for seniors

Measuring the physical effects of yoga for seniors

LeslieAs my grandmother marched into her 80s, she would regularly eyeball pieces of furniture before sitting on them. “I’m afraid I won’t be able to get up,” she’d say, in the spirit of fun but with some underlying fear. Even though she and my grandfather stayed active by taking yoga classes at a senior center, and were a neighborhood hit riding their tandem tricycle in matching helmets and T-shirts, declining strength and range of motion with age just made certain everyday movements difficult.

I thought of my grandma while reading about an NIH-funded study from the University of Southern California and University of California, Los Angeles on yoga for seniors. Published in the journal BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, the study quantified the physical effects of seven poses in 20 ambulatory older adults whose average age was 70.7 years. Participants attended hour-long Hatha yoga classes twice a week for 32 weeks. The researchers used biomechanical methods joint moments of force (JMOF) and electromyographic analysis at the beginning and end of the study to measure each pose’s demands on select lower-extremity joints and muscles.

In a Research Spotlight, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine noted:

Findings from the study may be used to help design evidence-based yoga programs in which poses are chosen for the purpose of achieving a clinical goal (e.g., targeting specific joints or muscle groups or improving balance). The physical demands, efficacy, and safety of yoga for older adults have not been well studied, and older adults are at higher risk of developing musculoskeletal problems such as strains and sprains when doing yoga.

Study author Leslie Kazadi, a Los Angeles-based experienced yoga therapist, designed the yoga program with a geriatrician, exercise physiologist/biomechanist, and physical therapist from the research team and taught participants the poses. She told me that standing poses were chosen to target areas of the body that tend to become weak or limited in seniors. Hip stabilizers, for example, help with mobility and balance – and confidence in everyday situations, such as rising from a chair. “What you need to move around in the world is to be strong in your lower body,” Kazadi said. “If you don’t have stability downstairs, then you’re not going to get freedom upstairs no matter what.”

Previously: Exploring the use of yoga to improve the health and strength of bonesAsk Stanford Med: Pain expert responds to questions on integrative medicineExercise programs shown to decrease pain, improve health in group of older adults and Moderate physical activity not a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis, study shows
Photo by NCCAM/RaffertyWeiss Media

Aging, Complementary Medicine, NIH

NCCAM to host Twitter chat on research and complementary health approaches for Alzheimer’s

Save the date (it’s tomorrow) and tune in for a Twitter chat on Alzheimer’s research and complementary health approaches to preventing or managing the disease. Hosted by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, the chat will feature experts from the NCCAM and the National Institute on Aging answering questions submitted using the hashtag #nccamchat.

Discussion topics will include dietary supplements such as ginkgo biloba that have been examined for possible effectiveness in slowing cognitive decline, and mind and body practices for caregivers. Check out the NCCAM’s current resources and Clinical Digest for more information.

Beginning at 1 PM Pacific time on Dec. 18, the conversation can also be followed at @NCCAM and @Alzheimers_NIH.

Previously: “Pruning synapses” and other strides in Alzheimer’s researchHow villainous substance starts wrecking synapses long before clumping into Alzheimer’s plaquesWhen brain’s trash collectors fall down on the job, neurodegeneration risk picks up and Ask Stanford Med: Pain expert responds to questions on integrative medicine

NIH, Research, Science, Stanford News

A new era in scientific discourse? PubMed gets comments

A new era in scientific discourse? PubMed gets comments

typing - smallPubMed, the massive index of biomedical research articles, has begun an experiment: Enabling the posting of comments on the articles’ citations. This might not seem like a big deal, but in this case the comments system, PubMed Commons, is creating a buzz.

Some of the tweets following the Oct. 22 announcement: “PubMed Commons will change the way science works, but I predict a big impact on science bloggers as well” (@Neuro_Skeptic), “Science buzz and criticism gets a powerful boost” (@phylogenomics) and “Seriously get ready for a turbo-charged #PubMed (@AlbertErives).”

It was actually two Stanford professors - biostatistician Rob Tibshirani, PhD, and biochemist Pat Brown, PhD – who got the project rolling. I talked with Tibshirani for an article in Inside Stanford Medicine about the project’s beginnings and what he hopes it will accomplish. For starters, he sees it as a way for readers to note errors in the scientific literature in a place other researchers will see. But he also hopes it will generally expand scientific discourse and build community:

“Science can be lonely,” Tibshirani said. “Just having people talk about your work is nice. Sure it’s nice to have good comments. But it’s nice to have comments at all. At least someone cares enough to read your paper.”

For now, during this expanded pilot phase, only individuals who have published articles indexed in PubMed can make comments or see them. Tibshirani says he’s hopeful the leaders of the National Institutes of Health will decide to allow the general public to see the comments too. More on the how and why of the project as well as the quandary over anonymous comments (yea or nay) in the article.

For a fuller picture of the social media reaction, see this Storify created by Hilda Bastian, a blogger at Scientific American and an editor at the National Center for Biotechnology Information, the organization within the NIH that runs PubMed.
Photo by Mike Traboe

Medical Education, Medical Schools, NIH, Science, Science Policy

Medical school leaders to Congress: Stop NIH budget cuts

Medical school leaders to Congress: Stop NIH budget cuts

In a letter (.pdf) to Congress yesterday, nearly 200 medical school deans and hospital CEOs expressed their “grave concern regarding the impact of the continued cuts, especially those imposed by sequestration” on NIH-supported research. The group of leaders, including Stanford’s Lloyd Minor, MD, went on to say:

Sequestration already has resulted in the loss of $1.5 billion from the NIH budget in FY 2013. This reduction comes at the end of a decade that has seen NIH lose more than 20 percent of its purchasing power after inflation. As a result, the percentage of promising research proposals that NIH is able to fund has fallen to less than 17 percent, an all-time low. Furthermore, NIH estimates it will lose a total $19 billion from its budget if sequestration is allowed to continue for the next eight years, delaying progress for patients awaiting the chance for a better

Enacted and proposed cuts in NIH funding threaten current and emerging basic research opportunities across the country, as well as the clinical studies that are essential to bring scientific discoveries from the bench to the bedside. Further, these cuts also will discourage young people from careers in medical research, risking the loss of the next generation of innovators and their ideas.

Previously: Senate proposes to increase NIH’s budget in 2014, NIH director on scaring young scientists with budget cuts: “If they go away, they won’t come back” and Sequestration hits the NIH – fewer new grants, smaller budgets
Via Association of American Medical Colleges

Aging, NIH, Orthopedics, Technology

Support for robots that assist people with disabilities

Support for robots that assist people with disabilities

As if medical research funding wasn’t tight enough, now scientists must compete with robots for grants. Wait… I have that wrong. The National Institutes of Health recently announced the awarding of $2.4 million over the next five years for projects with robots. (The humans are still in charge of the studies.)

Now that that’s cleared up, let’s talk about the robots. As part of the second year of the National Robotics Initiative – a shared project of multiple federal agencies to design “co-robots” to improve mobility and functioning in people with disabilities – the NIH is funding three projects.

One is a co-robotic cane that can aid the visually impaired by sensing information about the environment and relaying it to its user. Another is a co-robotic active catheter for heart procedures.

And my favorite, the novel platform for rapid exploration of robotic ankle exoskeleton control, is a wearable robot. People with impaired mobility or strength from aging or due conditions such as cerebral palsy or spinal cord injury may be assisted by this device. Researchers from North Carolina State University and Carnegie Mellon University will test robotic control methods in patients recovering from a stroke to improve the product’s design.

Previously: Biotech start-up builds artful artificial limbs

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