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Health and Fitness, Technology, Videos

Wireless stick-on patch could make continuous health monitoring more flexible and practical

Wireless stick-on patch could make continuous health monitoring more flexible and practical

Stress tests or sleep studies are two examples of when long-term clinical monitoring are necessary. But bulky wires, sensors, or tape used during these studies can inhibit the natural movements of test subjects and potentially skew outcomes. In an effort to solve this issue, researchers at Northwestern University developed a wearable patch that adheres to the skin, easily stretches and moves with the body, gathers physiological statistics, and can send wireless updates to a cellphone or computer.

A recent post on Futurity offers more details about how the device, which stick to the skin like a temporary tattoo, was designed:

Researchers turned to soft microfluidic designs to address the challenge of integrating relatively big, bulky chips with the soft, elastic base of the patch. The patch is constructed of a thin elastic envelope filled with fluid. The chip components are suspended on tiny raised support points, bonding them to the underlying patch but allowing the patch to stretch and move.

One of the biggest engineering feats of the patch is the design of the tiny, squiggly wires connecting the electronics components—radios, power inductors, sensors, and more. The serpentine-shaped wires are folded like origami, so that no matter which way the patch bends, twists or stretches, the wires can unfold in any direction to accommodate the motion. Since the wires stretch, the chips don’t have to.

The article goes on to discuss the potential of wearable electronic devices in health care, including the possibility of detecting motions associated with Parkinson’s disease at its onset.

Previously: Ultra-thin flexible device offers non-invasive method of monitoring heart health, blood pressure, New method for developing flexible nanowire electronics could yield ultrasensitive biosensors and Stanford researchers develop a new biosensor chip that could speed drug development

Neuroscience, Research, Technology, Videos

Using Google Glass to improve quality of life for Parkinson’s patients

Using Google Glass to improve quality of life for Parkinson's patients

Researchers at Newcastle University are exploring ways that Google Glass could improve Parkinson’s patients’ quality of life by assisting them in placing phone calls, reminding them to take their medications or giving them behavioral prompts, such as speaking louder. In the video above, Roisin McNaney, a PhD student in the university’s Digital Interaction Group, explains how using Glass could ease patients’ anxiety about encountering a symptom-related problem while in public, raise patients’ confidence and, ultimately, make them more independent.

Previously: Abraham Verghese uses Google Glass to demonstrate how to begin a patient exam, Revealed: The likely role of Parkinson’s protein in the healthy brain and Stanford study identifies molecular mechanism that triggers Parkinson’s
Via Medgadget

In the News, Nutrition, Research

Examining how food texture impacts perceived calorie content

Examining how food texture impacts perceived calorie content

brownies_041614The texture of a food – whether it’s creamy or crunchy – may influence a person’s overall consumption and his perception on whether the food is calorie-rich or diet-friendly. That’s according to findings recently published in the Journal of Consumer Research.

For the study, researchers conducted five laboratory studies during which individuals were asked to sample hard, soft, rough or smooth foods and then give calorie estimations for each food. During one of the experiments, participants were asked to watch TV ads while eating bit-sized brownies. As the Huffington Post reports:

… half of the participants were asked to estimate how many calories they thought the brownies had, while the other half were not. Within these groups, half of the participants were given brownie bits that were soft, while the others were given ones that were hard.

Among the participants who were not asked to focus on the calorie content of the brownies, they consumed more soft brownie bits than hard brownie bits. However, among the participants who were asked to focus on the calorie content, they consumed more of the hard brownie bits than the soft ones.

The study is part of a growing body of scientific evidence showing that several factors can impact whether we consider foods to be healthy or fattening and how much we eat. Past research has shown that people frequently underestimate the calories they’re eating and that many of us tend to overeat in sit-down restaurants rather than fast-food spots. Additionally, the sequence of foods may affect how we calculate calorie content, and the color of tableware can influence how much we eat.

Previously: Obesity and smoking together may decrease taste of fat and sweet but increase consumption, Cereal-eaters: How much are you really consuming?, Fruit-filled Manga comics may increase kids’ consumption of healthy food, and Can dish color influence how much you eat?
Photo by Sarah

Global Health, Infectious Disease, Public Health, Research, Stanford News

Using video surveillance to gain insights into hand washing behavior

Using video surveillance to gain insights into hand washing behavior

13715-handwashing_newsSimply washing your hands can reduce the reduce respiratory illnesses, such as colds, in the general public by 21 percent, cut the number of people who get sick with diarrhea by 31 percent and lower diarrheal illness in people with weakened immune systems by 58 percent, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Despite these compelling facts, and many years of global awareness campaigns, hand-cleaning rates remain far below full compliance — particularly in low-income, developing world settings. But using video surveillance to observe hygiene practices can offers insights that may help improve design, monitoring and evaluation of hand-washing campaigns, according to a new Stanford study.

For the study, researchers installed video cameras at the washing stations outside latrines of four public schools in the Kibera slum of Nairobi, Kenya. Teachers were informed in advance and parents and administrators granted their permission for the experiment. Their findings were highlighted in a Stanford News article published yesterday:

  • Both video observation and in-person observation demonstrated longer hand cleaning times for hand washing with soap as compared to rubbing with sanitizer.
  • Students at schools equipped with soap and water, instead of sanitizer, were 1.3 times more likely to wash their hands during simultaneous video surveillance and in-person observation when compared with periods of in-person observation alone.
  • Overall, when students were alone at a hand-cleaning station, hand cleaning rates averaged 48 percent, compared to 71 percent when at least one other student was present.

Based on their findings, study authors recommended the following approaches for boosting hand washing:

  • Placement of hand cleaning materials in public locations
  • Scheduling specific times for bathroom breaks between classes
  • Designating specific students to be hand hygiene “champions”
  • Formation of student clubs to demonstrate and promote hand hygiene to classmates

Previously: Examining the effectiveness of hand sanitizers, Survey outlines barriers to handwashing in schools, Examining hand hygiene in the emergency department, Good advice from Washyourhandsington and Hey, health workers: Washing your hands is good for your patients
Photo by Amy Pickering

Health and Fitness, Stanford News, Videos

How social connection can improve physical and mental health

How social connection can improve physical and mental health

Past research has shown that a lack of social connection may be a greater detriment to a person’s health than obesity, smoking and high blood pressure. In this TEDxHayward video, Emma Seppala, PhD, associate director of Stanford’s Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education, discusses these and other findings showing that maintaining strong social relationships can improve physical and mental health. Contrary to popular belief, she says, social connection has more to do with your subjective feeling of connection than how many friends you have.

Take a moment to watch the talk and learn how fostering compassion for others and yourself can increase social connection and, as a result, benefit your health.

Previously: How loneliness can impact the immune system, The scientific importance of social connections for your health and Elderly adults turn to social media to stay connected, stave off loneliness

Global Health, Infectious Disease, Technology

Health workers use crowdsourced maps to respond to Ebola outbreak in Guinea

Médecins Sans Frontières and other international aid organizations are furiously working to contain an outbreak of Ebola in Guinea and nearby African countries. Latest reports estimate that the virus has infected 157 people and killed 101 in Guinea alone.

A New Scientist story published today explains how health workers from Médecins Sans Frontières were initially at a disadvantage when they arrived in Guinea to combat the deadly virus because they only had topographic charts to use in pinpointing the source of the disease. Desperately in need of maps that would be useful in understanding population distribution, the organization turned to Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team, which coordinated a crowdsourcing effort to produce the first digital map of Guéckédou, a city of around 250,000 people in southern Guinea. Hal Hodson writes:

As of 31 March, online maps of Guéckédou were virtually non-existent, says Sylvie de Laborderie of cartONG, a mapping NGO that is working with MSF to coordinate the effort with HOT. “The map showed two roads maybe – nothing, nothing.”

Within 12 hours of contacting the online group, Guéckédou’s digital maps had exploded into life. Nearly 200 volunteers from around the world added 100,000 buildings based on satellite imagery of the area, including other nearby population centres. “It was amazing, incredible. I have no words to describe it. In less than 20 hours they mapped three cities,” says de Laborderie.

Mathieu Soupart, who leads technical support for MSF operations, says his organisation started using the maps right away to pinpoint where infected people were coming from and work out how the virus, which had killed 95 people in Guinea when New Scientist went to press, is spreading. “Having very detailed maps with most of the buildings is very important, especially when working door to door, house by house,” he says. The maps also let MSF chase down rumours of infection in surrounding hamlets, allowing them to find their way through unfamiliar terrain.

Previously: Using crowdsourcing to diagnose malaria and On crowdsourced relief efforts in Haiti

Autism, Genetics, Neuroscience, Research, Videos

Building a blueprint of the developing human brain

Building a blueprint of the developing human brain

In an effort to identify and better understand how genes turned on or off before birth influence early brain development, scientists at the Allen Institute for Brain Science have created a comprehensive three-dimensional map that illustrates the activity of some 20,000 genes in 300 brain regions during mid-prenatal development.

A post on the NIH Director’s blog discusses the significance of the project, known as the BrainSpan Atlas of the Developing Human Brain:

While this is just the first installment of what will be an atlas of gene activity covering the entire course of human brain development, this rich trove of data is already transforming the way we think about neurodevelopmental disorders.

To test the powers of the new atlas, researchers decided to use the database to explore the activity of 319 genes, previously linked to autism, during the mid-prenatal period. They discovered that many of these genes were switched on in the developing neocortex—a part of the brain that is responsible for complex behaviors and that is known to be disrupted in children with autism. Specifically, these genes were activated in newly formed excitatory neurons, which are nerve cells that send information from one part of the brain to another. The finding provides more evidence that the first seeds for autism are planted at the time when the cortex is in the midst of forming its six-layered architecture and circuitry.

In the above video, Ed Lein, PhD, an Allen Institute investigator, talks about the atlas and explains how it will allow researchers to examine genes that have been associated with a range of neurodevelopmental disorders and pinpoint when and where that gene is being used.

Previously: NIH announces focus of funding for BRAIN initiative, Brain’s gain: Stanford neuroscientist discusses two major new initiatives and Co-leader of Obama’s BRAIN Initiative to direct Stanford’s interdisciplinary neuroscience institute

Behavioral Science, Genetics, In the News, Research

Can procrastination and impulsivity be inherited?

procrastination_040814Do you always finish items on your to-do list in a timely fashion, or do you wait until the last minute? New research shows that the tendency to defer tasks could be inherited, and that the traits of procrastination and impulsivity could be genetically linked.

In the study (subscription required), researchers at University of Colorado Boulder asked 181 identical-twin pairs and 166 fraternal-twin pairs to complete surveys designed to measure individuals’ propensity to act impulsively or procrastinate, as well as their aptitude to set and maintain goals. Pysch Central reports:

They found that procrastination is indeed heritable, just like impulsivity. Not only that, there seems to be a complete genetic overlap between procrastination and impulsivity — that is, there are no genetic influences that are unique to either trait alone.

That finding suggests that, genetically speaking, procrastination is an evolutionary byproduct of impulsivity — one that likely manifests itself more in the modern world than in the world of our ancestors.

In addition, the link between procrastination and impulsivity also overlapped genetically with the ability to manage goals. This finding supports the idea that delaying, making rash decisions, and failing to achieve goals all stem from a shared genetic foundation.

Researchers hope that better understanding the underpinnings of procrastination will be useful in determining how these two traits relate to higher cognitive abilities.

Previously: Ask Stanford Med: Answers to your questions about willpower and tools to reach our goals, The science of willpower and How your perceptions about willpower can affect behavior, goal achievement
Photo by EvelynGiggles

Ask Stanford Med, Chronic Disease, Clinical Trials, Patient Care

Ask Stanford Med: A focus on scleroderma

Ask Stanford Med: A focus on scleroderma

Melissa Warde’s life was forever changed 21 years ago when, at the age of 15, she was diagnosed with scleroderma. At the time, little was known about the chronic connective tissue disease, which involves the hardening and tightening of the skin and fibers that provide the framework and support for the body. “I knew from that day forward, I could sit back and wait for the disease to progress or I could, to the best of my ability, work to control the disease within myself,” Warde said during an Ask Stanford Med Google+ Hangout last week. “I knew I had to have a cheerful disposition, despite the tragedy that I was dealt, and of course having a positive attitude really helped me to focus on the winnings of life.”

During the live conversation, Warde was joined by Lorinda Chung, MD, director of the Scleroderma Center and co-director of the Multidisciplinary Rheumatologic Dermatology Clinic at Stanford, and Karen Gottesman, patient services director for the Scleroderma Foundation of Southern California, for a panel on scleroderma research and progress being made to enhance patients’ quality of life.

Chung opened the discussion with an overview of recent modifications to the disease criteria used in diagnosing scleroderma. Since no two cases of scleroderma are alike, the disease can often be difficult to diagnosis. However, early detection (.pdf) is critical for improving patient outcomes. Under the new criteria, physicians are directed to look for symptoms such as puffy fingers, capillary changes in the nail folds or Raynaud’s disease, which is present in 90 percent of patients with systemic sclerosis. Chung said:

Previously, patients really had to have significant, pretty obvious, skin tightening in order to meet the classification criteria. Or have interstitial lung disease or pulmonary fibrosis, which is scarring in the basis of the lungs, in order to meet the criteria.

These new classification criteria will enable rheumatologists, who may be less experienced in scleroderma, to detect early signs and then refer [patients] appropriately for an accurate diagnosis.

Following Chung’s update on the modifications to the disease criteria, Gottesman spoke about how patients can mange stress related to learning they have a rare, incurable disease and continue living life to the fullest. She advised:

Really learn to be your own advocate. Part of that means educating yourself, not only on all the different aspects of the disease, but also on what type of scleroderma you have so you are aware of possible symptoms that come up.

I think what scares a lot of patients and is really stressful is when you hear of a disease that doesn’t have a cure. But you have to keep in mind that there are hundreds of diseases without cures and we have a lot of treatments in the toolbox to treat the symptoms. At the end of the day you have to learn to co-exist with the disease and that process is really different for every single patient.

Being a proactive patient, Gottesman said, also means being a compliant patient and following through on properly taking any prescribed medications, completing physician recommended tests and other instructions from health-care providers. She said, “If you have a different game plan in mind, then you really need to be upfront [with your doctor] about what it is you need and what you think you want to do, so that you can communicate. That will help you in the long run.”

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Medical Education

Medical student to surgical patient: “You can learn a lot from watching. Thank you for letting me watch”

surgery_040714Over on the “This May Hurt a Bit” blog, Harvard Medical School student Shara Yurkiewicz shares her experience of witnessing a common surgical procedure turn fatal after the patient’s blood pressure suddenly dropped and failed to recover.

In the emotionally honest account, Yurkiewicz tells the patient:

[The surgery] was going so smoothly that we were humming along to “Who Says You Can’t Go Home?” It was during the bridge of the song that your blood pressure suddenly dropped. The anesthesiologist called it out. I looked at the monitor and saw numbers flashing in red.

There was a lot of red, actually. Blood in the wound, blood in the suction container, blood in transfusion bags, bloody footprints on the floor. No more than with any other patient. But I think somewhere along the way I learned to take the sight of liters of blood for granted.

I was scared. I stopped watching them stitch and stared at the monitor, which suddenly seemed like my closest connection to you. They called out the medications they were giving you to raise your blood pressure.

After a few minutes, it worked. Your blood pressure slowly climbed to green numbers. I was still shaking as I silently willed the numbers to stop bouncing around.

Unfortunately, Yurkiewicz was unable to will the patient’s blood pressure to remain stable, and the fast-working surgeons were unable to save him. As she says good-bye to the patient, she writes, “You can learn a lot from watching. Thank you for letting me watch.”

Previously: Reality Check: When it stopped feeling like just another day in medical school, Sleep on it: The quest for rest in the modern hospital, Introducing SMS Unplugged and Facing mortality
Photo by U.S. Navy

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