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A winter break for Scope

A winter break for Scope

snowy fence

Happy Holidays from all of us at Scope! We’re taking a holiday break; from now until Jan. 5 we’ll be on a limited publishing schedule.

Photo by K.Hurley

Nutrition, Stanford News, Videos

Stanford dietitian explains how – not just what – you eat matters

Stanford dietitian explains how - not just what - you eat matters

Recent posts, including this one from last week and this one from earlier today, offered sound advice to help avoid overeating around the holidays. Of course, we all know that at times we overindulge. But Stanford’s Neha Shah, a registered dietitian with expertise in digestive issues that affect nutritional intake, knows that how we eat is important, too; it’s not just about what we put in our stomachs, but how we do that. In this Stanford Health Care video, titled “How You Eat Matters,” sit back and learn some techniques that might just make your digestive system much happier. And you, too, of course.

Previously: Easy-to-follow tips to avoid overeating this holiday

Chronic Disease, Health and Fitness, Nutrition

How to make it through holiday dinners without putting on the pounds

How to make it through holiday dinners without putting on the pounds

640px-Christmas_sugar_cookies,_January_2010A lot of people are worrying about overeating over the holidays, especially if they’re on a diet. We’ve offered advice in the past on how to avoid gaining weight over the holidays, and the  blog Obesity Panacea yesterday listed a few tips for eating healthy. My favorite:

Serve healthy snacks in large bowls and the unhealthy ones in small bowls

This little trick should result in a greater consumption of healthy snacks and a limited consumption of unhealthy ones, not only helping you, but those you have over to your place during the holidays.

A wonderfully simple study found that when snacks are offered in a large bowl, people take 53% more food (146 extra calories) and eat 56% (142 calories) more than when offered the same amount of food but in a smaller bowl (roughly half the size of large bowl).

It’s an easy change to make, but not one I never would have thought about. Other tips include drinking a glass or two of water 30 minutes before a meal and making sure you eat breakfast. Both tips ensure you won’t overeat when you get to the Christmas dinner table.

Previously: “Less is more”: More holiday eating tips from a Stanford nutrition lecturerEasy-to-follow tips to avoid overeating this holiday, “Less is more”: Eating wisely, with delight, during the holidays and Enjoying the turkey while watching your waistline
Photo by sweetfixNYC

Infectious Disease, Research, Science, Stanford News

Science Friday-style podcast explains work toward a universal flu vaccine

Science Friday-style podcast explains work toward a universal flu vaccine

I had the pleasure of teaching a class this fall to a group of mostly chemistry and chemical engineering graduate students, helping them improve their skills communicating about their science with the public. For her assignment, graduate student Julie Fogarty recorded this Science Friday-style segment on work taking place in the lab of chemical biologist and bioengineer James Swartz, PhD. Swartz and colleagues are trying to develop a universal flu vaccine that would eliminate the need to get a new vaccine each year – something all of us would probably appreciate. (Here I’m thinking about my colleague Michelle Brandt, who recently suffered the woes of not finding time to get her kids vaccinated.)

Julie’s brother Skyped in for his role as Science Friday host extraordinaire Ira Flatow in this segment, while Julie played the enthusiastic and articulate guest. It’s often difficult to explain complex science in audio format, but Julie does a fantastic job explaining the work in way that is very visual. I love her description of the flu virus as a little mushroom.

(A previous blog entry featured another student, Rhiannon Thomas-Tran, who produced a great video about her work.)

Previously: Working to create a universal flu vaccine, Graduate student explains pain research in two-minute video and How one mom learned the importance of the flu shot – the hard way

Global Health, Pediatrics, Public Safety, Research, Stanford News, Women's Health

Working to prevent sexual assaults in Kenya

Working to prevent sexual assaults in Kenya

Kenyan slumsThe little girl bounded up to us, wearing a filthy pink sweater, with a beaming smile on her face, and gave me a huge hug. Surprised at the reception, I hugged her back and swung her gently back and forth. She giggled and ran to hug my colleagues, then, hopping over an open sewer, darted into an alley that lead to her home. We followed as quickly as we could over the slippery mud, down one alleyway than another. Within a few minutes we reached her house, a 5’ by 10’ structure made of mud and wood, without windows, electricity, or locks. The girl, named Lianna*, lives here with her two year-old brother, who calls her “Mama”, as she is his primary caretaker. Their mother is a bartender and likely also a sex worker, and returns home only occasionally. The home is filthy, smells bad, and is without food or water. Yet this beautiful child, brimming with energy and intelligence, is proud to show it to us and to introduce us to her sibling.

Lianna is a resident of Korogocho, one of the poorest informal settlements (known to many as slums) in the Nairobi region of Kenya. Korogocho itself has about 52,000 residents, and it borders on other, larger informal settlements such as Dandora. Poverty and lack of sanitation are the norm in these communities, and crime is extremely high. Girls in these settlements may be especially vulnerable, with 18-25 percent of adolescent girls reporting being sexually assaulted each year, often by friends and relatives.

A multidisciplinary team at Stanford has been working in these communities on a sexual assault prevention project with two Kenyan non-governmental organizations (NGOs), Ujamaa and No Means No Worldwide (NMNW), for about two years. This past July, my colleague Mike Baiocchi, PhD, and I traveled to Kenya to meet the local NGO staff, become familiar with the communities they work in, and advance their research capacity.

Ujamaa, led by Jake Sinclair, MD, a pediatrician from John Muir Hospital, has been working in these and other settlements, including Kibera, Mathare, Huruma, Kariobangi, for more than 14 years, and has partnered with NMNW for several years. NMNW, led by Lee Paiva Sinclair, developed a curriculum to reduce sexual assault by teaching empowerment and self-defense, and works with Ujamaa to implement this curriculum in the slums. The Stanford team became involved in order to research the effectiveness of this intervention.

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Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford News, Videos

Stanford patient benefits from total artificial heart

Stanford patient benefits from total artificial heart

Mechanical support for failing hearts is not a new idea. Size, however, matters. In 1966, Michael DeBakey, MD, successfully implanted the first device to replace the pumping action on the left side of the heart. Now, at medical centers like Stanford, the LVAD, or left ventricular assist device, about 3 inches long, is a workhorse that enables many people with heart disease to live a normal life. Sure, if you have an LVAD implanted in your chest, you have to wear a power pack and a reserve power pack outside your body, but most find that burden acceptable. Your heart also remains in your body. If the whole heart is failing, that’s another matter.

In 1969, Denton Cooley, MD, removed Haskell Karp’s diseased heart and replaced it with an artificial one intended only to keep the 47-year-old alive for the three days it took to find an appropriate human heart for transplant. He died two days after that transplant. The heart was driven by an air pump the size of a washing machine. By 1983, when William DeVries, MD, put an artificial heart in Barney Clark’s chest, it was because Clark was too sick for a transplant. The pump supporting the artificial heart was still the size of a washing machine. Clark would never be able to leave his hospital room even to walk down a hospital hallway. He died 112 days later.

A little over a year ago, Stanford cardiovascular surgeons removed the heart of chess teacher Vaness French. French had lived with heart disease for decades, altering his diet, upping his exercise, doing everything he could until one summer day in 2013, when he went into cardiac arrest at a baseball game. Luckily, he was with a friend who knew CPR and kept French alive. In the months before, his Stanford cardiologist, Dipanjee Banerjee, MD, had fine-tuned French’s medications and ablation had been tried to stabilize the atrial fibrillation French experienced frequently. Now, the only option to keep him alive was a human heart transplant or an artificial heart.

French’s survival until a transplant was available was seriously in doubt. French agreed to let a team of Stanford surgeons, lead by Richard Ha, MD, implant an artificial one. Remarkably, in footage shot just two weeks after that implantation of the total artificial heart, French is up and around, albeit a bit slowly. The support machine for the artificial heart is now small and lightweight enough so he could leave his room, with a bit of help, of course. Two weeks later, even before he received a support machine so small and portable he would have been allowed to return home, the right human heart came French’s way. In the recently-released video above you can see an artificial heart implantation procedure – and hear how it changed French’s life.

Previously: “Liberated from LVAD support”: One patient’s story and Dick Cheney on his heart transplant: “It’s the gift of life itself”

Genetics, Neuroscience, Research, Science, Stanford News

Yeast advance understanding of Parkinson’s disease, says Stanford study

Yeast advance understanding of Parkinson's disease, says Stanford study

It’s amazing to me that the tiny, one-celled yeast can be such a powerful research tool. Now geneticist Aaron Gitler, PhD, has shown that the diminutive organism can even help advance the understanding of Parkinson’s disease and aid in identifying new genes involved in the disorder and new pathways and potential drug targets. He published his findings today in Neuron and told me in an email:

Parkinson’s disease is associated with many genetic and environmental susceptibility factors. Two of the newest Parkinson’s disease genes, EIF4G1 and VPS35, encode proteins involved in protein translation (the act of making protein from RNA messages) and protein sorting (shuttling proteins to the correct locations inside the cell), respectively. We used unbiased yeast genetic screens to unexpectedly discover a strong genetic interaction between these two genes, suggesting that the proteins they encode work together.

The proteins, EIF4G1 and VPS35, have changed very little from yeast to humans. Gitler and his colleagues showed that VPS35 interacts functionally with another protein implicated in Parkinson’s disease, alpha-synuclein, in yeast, round worms and even laboratory mice. As Gitler described:

Together, our findings connect three seemingly distinct Parkinson’s disease genes and provide a path forward for understanding how these genes might contribute to the disease and for identifying therapeutic interventions. More generally, our approach underscores the power of simple model systems for interrogating even complex human diseases.

Previously: Researchers pinpoint genetic suspects in ALS and In Stanford/Gladstone study, yeast genetics further ALS research

Behavioral Science, Public Health, Sleep

Six simple ways to improve your sleep for the holidays

Six simple ways to improve your sleep for the holidays

IMG_5595The holiday season is usually one of the busiest – and often most stressful – times of the year. It’s also a season that often brings poor sleep. To improve your health and your mood, consider six simple ways that you can maintain healthy sleep during the hustle and bustle of the holidays and even discover the resolve to improve your sleep in 2015.

1. Go to bed when you’re sleepy.

It seems obvious, but it isn’t always easy to do: Sleep most easily comes when we are feeling sleepy. Insomnia, characterized by difficulty falling or staying asleep, can plague us throughout the year. With the added stress of the holidays, it can be even harder to fall asleep.

Many insomniacs will start to go to bed earlier, or stay in bed long after waking, to make up for lost sleep. This desperation often thins out sleep and makes it less refreshing. Imagine showing up for a holiday feast after having snacked all day. You wouldn’t have much of an appetite. If you spend too much time in bed, or take naps, you similarly will show up for the eight-hour feast of sleep without much interest.

Prolonged wakefulness helps to build our drive for sleep and staying up a little later until you feel sleepy can ease insomnia.Preserving 30 to 60 minutes to relax before bed can also aid this transition.

2. Ease yourself into a new time zone to prevent jet lag.

If you’re flying across the world, or even across the country, you may find that your sleep suffers. This is due to our body’s natural circadian rhythm, which regulates the timing or our desire for sleep. This rhythm is based in genetics, but it is strongly influenced by environmental cues, especially morning sunlight exposure.

If you suddenly change your experience of the timing of light and darkness by hopping on a jet plane, your body will have to play catch up. As a general rule: “West is best and east is a beast.” This points out that westward travel is more tolerated because it’s nearly always easier to stay up later than it is to wake up earlier.

Another rule of thumb is that it takes one day to adjust for each time zone changed. If you travel across three time zones, from San Francisco to New York City, it will take about three days to adjust to the new time zone. This adaptation can be expedited by adopting the new time zone’s bedtime and wake time before you depart. If you’re like most people, your best intentions might not lead to pre-trip changes.

Never fear: To catch up once you arrive, delay your bedtime until you are sleepy, fix your wake time with an alarm, and get 15 minutes of morning sunlight upon awakening.

3. Put an end to the snoring.

Whether you’re staying in grandma’s spare room or sharing a hotel suite, close quarters during the holidays may call attention to previously unnoted snoring and other sleep-disordered breathing like sleep apnea.

Remember that children should never chronically snore; if they do, they should be seen by a sleep specialist. Adults don’t have to snore either. Snoring is commonly caused by the vibration of the soft tissues of the throat. If the airway completely collapses in sleep, this is called sleep apnea. This may lead to fragmented sleep with nocturnal awakenings and daytime sleepiness. It is also commonly associated with teeth grinding and getting up to urinate at night.

When sleep apnea is moderate to severe, it may increase the risk of other health problems including hypertension, diabetes, heart attack, stroke, and dementia. It’s more than a nuisance, and if you or a loved one experience it, further evaluation and treatment is warranted.

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Biomed Bites, In the News, Research, Stem Cells, Technology, Videos

“It gives me the chills just thinking about it”: Stanford researcher on the potential of stem cells

"It gives me the chills just thinking about it": Stanford researcher on the potential of stem cells

Welcome to the last Biomed Bites of 2014. We’ll be continuing this series next year — check each Thursday to meet more of Stanford’s most innovative biomedical researchers. 

If you watch this video and aren’t moved by the passion and conviction of Stanford biologist Margaret Fuller, PhD, then email me. Seriously, I’ll try to talk some sense into you. Because Fuller’s enthusiasm for biomedicine is downright contagious. This is a professor who you want to teach biology.

Fuller, a professor of developmental biology and of genetics, works with adult stem cells, and she’s palpably gleeful about their potential to improve the health of millions.

“I was really struck and inspired by a recent article in the New York Times,” Fuller says in the video above. She’s talking about “Human Muscle Regenerated with Animal Help,” a 2012 piece that told the story of Sgt. Ron Strang, a Marine who lost part of his quadriceps in Afghanistan. Yet here is Strang, walking, thanks to the donation of a extracellular matrix from a pig. This paper-like sheet secreted signals instructing his stem cells to come to the rescue and build new muscle. “It was amazing,” Strang told the Times reporter. “Right off the bat I could do a full stride, I could bend my knee, kick it out a little bit…”

“This is really amazing,” Fuller agrees. “It gives me the chills just thinking about it. This is the kind of knowledge and advances of the basic work that I do… The hope is that understanding those underlying mechanisms will allow people to design small molecules and other strategies that can be used to induce our own adult stem cells to be called into action for repair.”

Learn more about Stanford Medicine’s Biomedical Innovation Initiative and about other faculty leaders who are driving biomedical innovation here.

Previously: Center for Reproductive and Stem Cell Biology receives NIH boost, Why the competition isn’t adult vs. embryonic stem cells and Induced pluripotent stem cell mysteries explored by Stanford researchers

Behavioral Science, Health and Fitness, Nutrition, Obesity, Public Health, Research

Perceptions about progress and setbacks may compromise success of New Year’s resolutions

3336185391_60148a87fa_zMy physical therapist is constantly telling me to pause during the workday and take stretch breaks to counter act the damage of being hunched over a computer for hours on end. After every visit to his office, I vow to follow his advice, but then life gets busy and before I know it I’ve forgotten to keep my promise.

So I decided that one of my New Year’s resolutions will be to set an alarm on my phone to serve as a reminder to perform simple stretches throughout the day. Keeping in mind that a mere eight percent of people who make resolutions are successful, I began looking for strategies help me accomplish my goal. My search turned up new research about how the perception of setbacks and progress influence achievement of behavior change. According to a University of Colorado, Boulder release:

New Year’s resolution-makers should beware of skewed perceptions. People tend to believe good behaviors are more beneficial in reaching goals than bad behaviors are in obstructing goals, according to a University of Colorado Boulder-led study.

A dieter, for instance, might think refraining from eating ice cream helps his weight-management goal more than eating ice cream hurts it, overestimating movement toward versus away from his target.

“Basically what our research shows is that people tend to accentuate the positive and downplay the negative when considering how they’re doing in terms of goal pursuit,” said Margaret C. Campbell, lead author of the paper — published online in the Journal of Consumer Research — and professor of marketing at CU-Boulder’s Leeds School of Business.

Given these findings, researchers suggest you develop an objective method for measuring your progress and monitor it regularly.

Previously: Resolutions for the New Year and beyond, How learning weight-maintenance skills first can help you achieve New Year’s weight-loss goals, To be healthier in the new year, resolve to be more social and Helping make New Year’s resolutions stick
Photo by Laura Taylor

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