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Cancer, Dermatology, In the News, Public Safety, Research, Stanford News

A closer look at new research showing disproportionate rates of melanoma in Marin County

Last week, Cancer Prevention Institute of California/Stanford Cancer Institute researcher Christine Clarke, PhD, shared results of a new report (.pdf) showing that a county in California has higher numbers of melanoma skin cancer than the rest of the state. On this morning’s Forum Clarke joined two other guests, including Stanford dermatologist Susan Swetter, MD, director of the Pigmented Lesion and Melanoma Program at the Stanford Cancer Institute, to discuss the research and to offer skin safety and screening tips for the summer.

It’s worth a listen – especially if you live in the county just north of San Francisco.

Previously: Melanoma rates exceed rates of lung cancer in some areasWorking to protect athletes from sun dangers, As summer heats up take steps to protect your skin, Stanford study: Young men more likely to succumb to melanoma, New research shows aspirin may cut melanoma risk and Working to prevent melanoma

Grand Roundup

Grand Roundup: Top posts for the week of July 20

The five most-read stories this week on Scope were:

What other cultures can teach us about managing postpartum sleep deprivation: A recent Huffington Post piece from the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine examined how mothers in other countries cope with postpartum sleep deprivation.

Stanford bioengineer develops a 50-cent paper microscopeManu Prakash, PhD, assistant professor of bioengineering, has developed an ultra-low-cost paper microscope to aid disease diagnosis in developing regions. The device is further described in a technical paper.

How much caffeine is really in one cup of coffee?: As described in a Scientific American piece, new research shows the caffeine and caffeoylquinic acid content can vary greatly depending on the type and preparation of coffee.

Why sleeping in on the weekends may not be beneficial to your health: This blog entry links to a Wired Science article describing the dangers of oversleeping.

In medicine, showing empathy isn’t enough: In the latest installment of our SMS Unplugged series, medical student Moises Gallegos discusses some of the things he’s learned and observed about health disparities.

And still going strong – the most popular post from the past:

The mystery surrounding lung-transplant survival rates: A 2012 article in the San Francisco Chronicle offered a look at the challenges facing lung transplant patients and explored why a significant number don’t live beyond the five-year mark, despite improvements in survival rates.

Humor, Parenting, Science

A humorous look at how a background in science can help with parenting

A humorous look at how a background in science can help with parenting

Scientist-moms out there might enjoy this playful (tongue-in-cheek) Huffington Post essay on how having a science degree made the writer a better parent. I had to chuckle at Sarah Gilbert’s list of how she’s found uses for the sciences in her day-to-day life:

Physics: Knowing that my house will return to complete disorder immediately after I clean it, because entropy.

Biology: Knowing everything my baby ate by the contents of her diaper, because scat identification.

Neuro-psychology: Knowing that my toddler freaking out over sandwich crusts is just a phase, because frontal lobe development.

Statistics: Knowing that the chance of having a baby brother is 50/50 no matter what my mother-in-law thinks, because mutually exclusive events.

Astronomy: Knowing that the woman judging me by my yogurt-spattered shirt isn’t the only thing in the universe, because cosmology.

In the News, Mental Health, Research

How are flight attendants affected by plane disasters?

How are flight attendants affected by plane disasters?

airplaneA few nights after the recent plane crash in Ukraine, I ran into an acquaintance who was heading to Europe later in the week. “It feels weird to fly,” she told me, comparing it to how she felt about boarding a plane for the first time after the 9/11 attacks 13 years ago. I could relate: During my first post-9/11 flight, I was jittery and uneasy the entire way from San Francisco to Minneapolis. (It didn’t help that I was flying alone, in the darkened cabin of a red-eye.)

If plane crashes and tragedies like the one in Ukraine can leave passengers feeling unsettled (or worse), how might they affect people who take to the skies on an almost daily basis? In a piece on The Atlantic yesterday, writer Rebecca Rosen reported on the work of Jeffrey M. Lating, PhD, a professor of psychology at Loyola University Maryland who has studied this issue. Rosen writes:

For flight attendants who worked at American Airlines on 9/11, the rates [of PTSD] were… just over 18 percent. This number is so high, Lating says, it is comparable to the rates seen among people living south of Canal Street in Manhattan, the neighborhoods closest to Ground Zero.

Lating and his colleagues found no statistical difference in probable PTSD rates between West Coast flight attendants and East Coasters, who were much more likely to have known the flight attendants killed on 9/11. For flight attendants, it seems that the trauma they experience following a crash comes not only from the loss and tragedy itself, but also from a deep sense of vulnerability. A follow-up study in 2006 found similarly high rates of probable PTSD at another airline, further suggesting that “it didn’t matter what airline you worked for,” says Lating. “The virulent factor in this was, ‘I wonder if I could possibly be next.’ ”

Those fears can make just doing one’s job as a flight attendant incredibly challenging. Many suffering from PTSD try to avoid sights and triggers that recall the initial trauma. But for flight attendants, those reminders are unavoidable, part of the work itself. To have to work through that anxiety, all the while servicing others and maintaining a sense of calm on a flight— “you could imagine how uncomfortable that would be,” Lating say

Previously: 9/11: Grieving in the age of social media and What 9/11 has taught us about PTSD
Photo by epsos.de

Health Disparities, Health Policy

A quiz on the social determinants of health

Given the topic of today’s SMS-Unplugged entry, during which Moises Humberto Gallegos discusses how things like housing insecurity and financial hardship can contribute to poor health, I was interested to come across this Covering Health quiz on the social determinants of health. Writer Joe Rojas-Burke asks 10 true-or-false questions, and I think some of the answers may surprise you. For example:

Expanding health insurance coverage and access to medical care (the focus of the federal Affordable Care Act) is unlikely to reverse the health disparities caused by the social determinants of health.

TRUE: In countries that established universal health coverage decades ago, lower social status still correlates with worse health and shorter lives. The research on social determinants suggests that progress is likely to require broader social changes, such as improving access to education, boosting economic opportunity and making disadvantaged neighborhoods safer and and more vital.

And:

Food deserts – neighborhoods with few or no grocery stores selling fresh, affordable produce – are a well-defined root cause of obesity and other health problems in disadvantaged communities.

FALSE: There is evidence showing that low-income and minority Americans are more likely to live in food deserts. But it’s not at all clear to what extent the lack of supermarkets and grocery stores contributes to obesity or other health outcomes.

Previously: In medicine, showing empathy isn’t enough, Should the lack of access to good food be blamed for America’s poor eating habits? and Hopkins researchers find place, rather than race, may be greater determinant of health

Patient Care, Stanford News, Videos

More on the Navy pilot with mysterious symptoms – and the Stanford doctors who diagnosed him

More on the Navy pilot with mysterious symptoms - and the Stanford doctors who diagnosed him

Last week, we blogged about a Navy pilot whose mysterious symptoms were diagnosed by clinicians here. A just-published Stanford Hospital video shares more of Robert Buchanan’s compelling story.

Previously: Medical mystery solved: Stanford clinicians identify source of Navy pilot’s puzzling symptoms

In the News, Pain, Patient Care, Research, Stanford News

More attention, funding needed for headache care

More attention, funding needed for headache care

In case you missed it, the San Francisco Chronicle ran a story over the weekend on migraines – and researchers’ ongoing search for a cause and universal treatment. Robert Cowan, MD, director of the Stanford Headache Clinic, was one of the people featured and told writer Stephanie M. Lee:

Headache care is 50 years behind things like diabetes and cancer… It just hasn’t had the attention, hasn’t had the funding, in order to get to the answers we need.

Previously: Director of Stanford Headache Clinic answers your questions on migraines and headache disorders and New Stanford headache clinic taking an interdisciplinary approach to brain pain

In the News, Stanford News

A curated selection of news from Dean Lloyd Minor

A curated selection of news from Dean Lloyd Minor

What should you be reading today? Over on OZY’s Presidential Daily Brief, Lloyd Minor, MD, dean of the medical school, points readers to some of the most interesting stories in medicine, bioscience and beyond. Among his picks as guest curator are a recent Atlantic article on creativity and a Guardian piece on hill climbing. Of the latter he writes:

Climbing and walking in the hills provides beneficial exercise, relaxation and renewal. Hope Whitmore, a writer living outside Edinburgh, Scotland, describes her journeys as well as her struggles with rheumatoid arthritis. As someone who loves to walk two dogs in the foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains, I can certainly relate to Whitmore’s description of her evening walks as “a healing, a cleansing of the soul, drawing a line between the workaday world and the night time.”

Previously: A closer look at Stanford medical school’s new dean

Ethics, Events, Health Policy, Stanford News, Transplants

How can we end the donor organ shortage?

How can we end the donor organ shortage?

organ donorOur country’s organ shortage is an issue of critical importance – especially to the more than 100,000 Americans currently waiting for an organ transplant. In the words of Stanford’s Keith Humphreys, PhD, “Everyone agrees that 18 people dying each day on transplant waiting lists is unacceptable, but there is fierce disagreement about what to do about it.”

Next week, Humphreys will moderate a panel discussion that delves into the issue. He’ll be joined by three experts – including Stanford bioethicist David Magnus, PhD – who will discuss the effect of the organ donation on our country’s overall health and debate the ethical and practical aspects of proposals to solve the problem. Among the most controversial proposed approach and something that will be vigorously debated: paying people to donate their organs.

The event, part of Stanford’s Health Policy Forum series, will be held on July 28 at 11 AM at the Li Ka Shing Center for Learning and Knowledge, in room LK130. For those local readers: It’s free and open to the public, but space is limited. More information can be found on the forum website.

Previously: Students launch Stanford Life Savers initiative to boost organ donation, Full-length video available for Stanford’s Health Policy Forum on serious mental illness, Stanford forum on the future of health care in America posted online and Stanford Health Policy Forum focuses on America’s methamphetamine epidemic
Photo by Mika Marttila

Medicine and Society, Pregnancy, Research

Study offers clue as to why parents of daughters are more likely to divorce

Study offers clue as to why parents of daughters are more likely to divorce

poppy2Here’s something that caught my attention this morning (likely because I’m the mom of two girls): A new study provides a possible reason behind reports that parents with firstborn daughters are more likely to divorce than those with firstborn sons. According to researchers from Duke and University of Wisconsin-Madison, it could be due to girls being “hardier than boys, even in the womb.”

A recent university release further explains:

Throughout the life course, girls and women are generally hardier than boys and men. At every age from birth to age 100, boys and men die in greater proportions than girls and women. Epidemiological evidence also suggests that the female survival advantage actually begins in utero. These more robust female embryos may be better able to withstand stresses to pregnancy, the new paper argues, including stresses caused by relationship conflict.

Based on an analysis of longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of U.S. residents from 1979 to 2010, Hamoudi and Nobles say a couple’s level of relationship conflict predicts their likelihood of subsequent divorce.

Strikingly, the authors also found that a couple’s level of relationship conflict at a given time also predicted the sex of children born to that couple at later points in time. Women who reported higher levels of marital conflict were more likely in subsequent years to give birth to girls, rather than boys.

“Girls may well be surviving stressful pregnancies that boys can’t survive,” Hamoudi said. “Thus girls are more likely than boys to be born into marriages that were already strained.”

The intriguing findings appear in the journal Demography.

Image courtesy of Michelle Brandt

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