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Aging, Research, Sleep

Having trouble sleeping? Research suggests spending more time outdoors

Having trouble sleeping? Research suggests spending more time outdoors


Raise your hand if you didn’t sleep well last night. Findings published in the latest issue of Preventive Medicine show that increasing the amount of time you spend outdoors can improve sleep quality, particularly for men and people over the age of 65.

To better understand the relationship between insufficient sleep and outdoor space, researchers analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which surveyed of more than 250,000 adults in the United States. This information was paired with data from a U.S. Department of Agriculture index that scores the country’s geographical areas for natural amenities, using hours of sunlight, an important factor in regulating a person’s circadian rhythm, and temperature. According to a release:

For men, the relationship between sleep and exposure to green space was much stronger than for women. And males and females 65 and over found nature to be a potent sleep aid, [Diana Grigsby-Toussaint, PhD, said.]

Grigsby-Toussaint noted that living near green landscapes is associated with higher levels of physical activity and that exercise in turn predicts beneficial sleep patterns.

The finding should be a boon for people who are having trouble sleeping as they age. “If there is a way for persons over 65 to spend time in nature, it would improve the quality of their sleep—and their quality of life—if they did so,” Grigsby-Toussaint said.

Researchers added that the findings underscored the importance of preserving nature and providing safe access to nature in urban development.

Previously: Green roofs are not just good for the environment, they boost productivity, study shows, Nature is good for you, right? and Out-of-office autoreply: Reaping the benefits of nature
Photo by Garry Knight

Health Policy, Pediatrics, Research, Sleep

Rethinking middle and high-school success: strategies for creating healthier students

Rethinking middle and high-school success: strategies for creating healthier students

512px-Sleeping_while_studyingMy daughters are still years away from college or even high school, but I’m not looking forward to the high-pressure arena that they look to be from afar. The stress and lack of sleep has to take a toll on students’ health. I was curious, then, to hear about a program developed by researchers from Stanford’s Graduate School of Education called Challenge Success. The program helps parents and schools develop a more even-keeled approach to the high-pressure world that many college-bound middle- and high-schoolers find themselves in.

Last week, the program released Overloaded and Underprepared: Strategies for Stronger Schools and Healthy, Successful Kids, a book that gathers what researchers at Challenge Success have learned in the dozen years the program has been in place. The GSE’s website features a Q&A with two of the book’s authors: Denise Pope, PhD, EdM, a Stanford GSE lecturer and co-founder of Challenge Success, and Maureen Brown, Challenge Success Executive Director.

Below are some highlights of the interview, which is worth reading all the way through:

How are students overloaded today?

Pope: People assume with the new standards and requirements for college admission, that teachers need to cover more topics in class and that kids need to take more courses and do more activities in school and after school to meet expectations for success. This is a confusion between rigor and load. Rigor is real depth of understanding, mastery of the subject matter. That’s what we want. Load is how much work is assigned. Many educators and many parents assume that the more work you assign and the more work students do, the better they will understand it. That is not necessarily the case. For example, we have teachers who teach AP classes and cut their homework load in half, and the kids end up doing as well on the exam. You don’t have to do four hours of homework in order to learn something in depth or to retain it. But four hours of homework can be incredibly damaging physically and emotionally.

. . .

Who should read this book?

Pope: We started writing it for educators, to give a guide to those schools that couldn’t physically partner with us at Challenge Success. The goal was to compile our best practices. But after a little bit of writing, I handed it to my husband (who isn’t an educator) just to see if it made sense. He came back and said, ‘You know, I was really interested as a parent as to why a school would use a block schedule or why so many kids are cheating or what is the purpose of taking an Advanced Placement course.’ So we realized it was actually a book for a much broader audience of people who were interested in the research on some of these practices.

Brown: For example, if parents don’t understand the ‘why’ for certain policies or practices, they can’t help advocate for real systemic change. The book gives parents the ability to ask the right questions at their schools to understand why their school is going down a certain path.

Previously: Excessive homework for high-performing high schoolers could be harmful, study findsWith school bells ringing, parents should ensure their children are doing enough sleeping, Stanford expert: Students shouldn’t sacrifice sleep and Stanford researchers to study effectiveness of yoga-based wellness program at local schools
Photo by Psy3330 W10

Pediatrics, Public Health, Public Safety, Sleep, Stanford News

Rolling through campus and talking sleep with famed researcher William Dement

Rolling through campus and talking sleep with famed researcher William Dement

Dement in shuttle2 (RS) - croppedRenowned sleep researcher William Dement, MD, PhD, is maneuvering his way in his “Sleep and Dreams Mobile” through the Stanford University campus, en route to the Jerry House, site of some of the early, landmark studies in sleep. The house, a sprawling Mediterranean-style dormitory, housed Stanford’s Summer Sleep Camp in the 70s and 80s, where Dement and his colleagues planted the seed for some of the most important findings in the field of sleep among adults and teens.

Three years ago, the house was immortalized with a plaque and a party in which Jeff Chimenti of Grateful Dead fame performed for a crowd of 60 celebrants (the building is named after the Grateful Dead’s Jerry Garcia). Dement, now 85, says he often passed the house on his way to his ever-popular Sleep and Dreams class and thought it was important to mark the spot.

“I’d go by this house and think, ‘What happened here is the biggest thing in sleep disorders.’ So I thought something should be done to create a memorial,” he says, leaning on the banister in the living room of the house.

I’ve asked him to give me a tour of the house as background for a story on teen sleep that I’m writing for the next issue of Stanford Medicine magazine. He points to the backyard of the house, now a barren Lake Lagunita, where young volunteers played volleyball, all the while carrying a nest of wires on their heads to monitor their brain waves. Inside, researchers would monitor the youngsters’ brain activity 24 hours a day to better understand their patterns of sleep.

“The electrodes would stay on their heads because it was too difficult to take them off,” Dement explains. When the volunteers would trudge off to Tresidder Union to go bowling or do other activities, he says, “People would say, ‘Here come the trodes.’”

Dement and his colleagues followed the youngsters for ten successive summers, observing patterns in how their sleep changed as they matured.

A major goal of the study was to confirm the popular belief that as teens get older, they need less sleep. To the researchers’ surprise, they found that as the youngsters aged, the number of hours they slept stayed the same – roughly 9 hours.

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Aging, In the News, Public Health, Sleep

Nothing to snort over: Why snoring should be taken seriously

Nothing to snort over: Why snoring should be taken seriously

6258904896_ec4a6f155a_zIt’s the middle of the night—or maybe the middle of the day—and all seems well. Then, you hear it: a low, rumbling, animalistic sound. It could be a snort or a growl or even a snarl. But it’s not an animal at all. It’s a person who is snoring far too loudly for your liking, and the sound only seems to be getting worse.

It’s safe to say we all know someone who snores – or we may even do it ourselves. A Huffington Post article puts a spotlight on snoring and features Stanford’s Rafael Pelayo, MD, who explains why it occurs, why it becomes increasingly worse with age, and, most importantly, why it could signal a potentially serious health problem.

“Think of fire and a fire alarm,” Pelayo says. “The snoring is the alarm. If there’s a fire and the fire alarm goes off and I disconnect the alarm, it doesn’t mean I put out the fire. The fire could still be burning.”

Snoring could be a symptom of sleep apnea, a disorder in which a person’s breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep. Apnea is a legitimate medical issue that can be harmful if gone unchecked, and Pelayo encourages anyone who snores to get tested for it.

Alex Giacomini is an English literature major at UC Berkeley and a writing and social media intern in the medical school’s Office of Communication and Public Affairs.

Previously: New recommendation: Adults need at least 7 hours of sleep each night, Why untreated sleep apnea may cause more harm to your health than feeling fatigued and How insufficient sleep can lead to weight gain 
Photo by Marc Lewis

Autoimmune Disease, Immunology, Public Health, Research, Sleep, Stanford News

Cause of 2009 swine-flu-vaccine association with narcolepsy revealed?

Cause of 2009 swine-flu-vaccine association with narcolepsy revealed?

syringesBack in 2001, in the wacko cinematic tour de farce “Rat Race,” British actor Rowan Atkinson – a.k.a. the iconic “Mr. Bean” – put a humorous face on narcolepsy, a rare, chronic, incurable and lifelong sleep disorder that can strike at any time, even in the heat of a foot race.

In 2009, narcolepsy suddenly became, for a time, not quite so rare.

The swine flu pandemic sweeping the world that year was no joke. In the United States alone, the H1N1 strain of influenza virus responsible for that pandemic resulted in 274,304 hospitalizations and 12,469 deaths, as mentioned in our news release on a just-published study in Science Translational Medicine.

There probably would have been far more hospitalizations and deaths had not several vaccines tailored to that particular influenza strain been rushed to the market. Two vaccines in particular — Focetria, manufactured by Novartis, and Pandemrix, made by GlaxoSmithKline — are credited with saving a lot of lives in Europe. But there was a dark side. As our news release notes:

Populations that had been immunized with GlaxoSmithKline’s Pandemrix vaccine showed an increase in narcolepsy, but those immunized with Novartis’ Focetria did not.

That’s not news; it’s been known for some time. But the findings in the new study, whose senior author is Stanford neuroimmunologist Larry Steinman, MD, may explain why.

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Behavioral Science, Global Health, In the News, Public Health, Research, Sleep, Technology

Electricity access shortens sleep, study shows

Electricity access shortens sleep, study shows

Radium_Dial_UVGrowing up, my engineer father always told me to move my flowery glow-in-the-dark clock farther from my bedside. “You’re nuts, Dad,” I would respond, equating his concern with his conviction that he was dropped off by aliens in the New Mexican desert in 1947.

But now it turns out he may have had a point (although I’m still quite sure he came from a hospital in Pennsylvania, not a spaceship).

A new study published in the Journal of Biological Rhythms has shown that access to artificial light at night has shortened the amount of time we sleep each night. A recent University of Washington release describes the study:

The researchers compared two traditionally hunter-gatherer communities (in Argentina) that have almost identical ethnic and sociocultural backgrounds, but differ in one key aspect – access to electricity…

In their usual daily routines, the community with electricity slept about an hour less than their counterparts with no electricity. These shorter nights were mostly due to people who had the option to turn on lights and go to bed later, the researchers found. Both communities slept longer in the winter and for fewer hours in the summer.

This is the first study to examine differences in communities, rather than relying on artifically manipulating light in a laboratory.

“In a way, this study presents a proxy of what happened to humanity as we moved from hunting and gathering to agriculture and eventually to our industrialized society,” said lead author Horacio de la Iglesia, a University of Washington biology professor. “All the effects we found are probably an underestimation of what we would see in highly industrialized societies where our access to electricity has tremendously disrupted our sleep.”

So douse those lights, turn off the TV, push back your glowing clock, and embrace the dark — with a nice, long snooze.

Previously: New recommendation: Adults need at least 7 hours of sleep each nightMobile devices at bedtime? Sleep experts weigh in and Can adjusting your mobile device’s brightness help promote better sleep?
Via Medical News Today
Photo by Arma95

Health and Fitness, Research, Sleep

Jogging vs. chasing after your kids: Which one will help you sleep better?

Jogging vs. chasing after your kids: Which one will help you sleep better?

playgroundLast weekend, I raced after my toddler around the park for an afternoon and was shocked that my fitness tracker showed I walked the equivalent of 3.5 miles. Exhausted, I decided to count the mother-son outing as fulfilling my daily fitness requirement. But new research shows that when it comes to reaping the full health benefits of exercise, my park play date may not be the optimal form of physical activity.

As most of us know, scientific evidence shows that regular exercise can help us manage weight, improve mental health and mood, boost brain power, strengthen bones and muscles and reduce our risk of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and some cancers. Research has also suggests that individuals who clock at least 150 minutes of physical activity a week sleep better and are more alert during the day.

But a University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine study found that forms of exercise such as running, yoga, biking are associated with better sleep habits than housework or child-care activities. To better understand how various forms of physical activity affect sleep, researches analyzed data on nearly 43 adults from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and calculated the relationship between 10 different types of activities and the typical amount of sleep. According to a university release:

Compared to those who reported that they did not get physical activity in the past month, all types of activity except for household/childcare were associated with a lower likelihood of insufficient sleep. To assess whether these effects are just a result of any activity, results were compared to those who reported walking as their main source of activity. Compared to just walking, aerobics/calisthenics, biking, gardening, golf, running, weight-lifting and yoga/Pilates were each associated with fewer cases of insufficient sleep, and household/childcare activity was associated with higher cases of insufficient sleep. These results were adjusted for age, sex, education level, and body mass index.

“Although previous research has shown that lack of exercise is associated with poor sleep, the results of this study were surprising,” said Grandner. “Not only does this study show that those who get exercise simply by walking are more likely to have better sleep habits, but these effects are even stronger for more purposeful activities, such as running and yoga, and even gardening and golf. It was also interesting that people who receive most of their activity from housework and childcare were more likely to experience insufficient sleep – we know that home and work demands are some of the main reasons people lose sleep.”

Researchers will present their findings this week at SLEEP 2015, the 29th annual meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies LLC.

Previously: Can regular exercise improve your quality of sleep?, Superathletes sleep more, says Stanford researcher, The high price of interrupted sleep on your health and Why your sleeping habits may be preventing you from sticking to a fitness routine
Photo by eyeliam

In the News, Public Health, Research, Sleep

New recommendation: Adults need at least 7 hours of sleep each night

New recommendation: Adults need at least 7 hours of sleep each night

17376155493_6588ac3dcc_zHow much sleep is enough, and is it possible to sleep too much? Until recently, there wasn’t much consensus on sleep guidelines for adults. Now, a new set of recommendations agreed upon by a team of sleep experts helps put these questions to rest: Adults need a minimum of seven hours of sleep each night, preferably more.

These new recommendations, published yesterday in the journal SLEEP (subscription required), were developed by 15 sleep experts in a consensus panel assembled by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society. One of the panelists was Clete Kushida, MD, PhD, medical director of the Stanford Sleep Medicine Center, and I reached out to him to learn more about their work.

The goal of the panel was to take stock of existing studies on sleep and use the information to come to a consensus on a recommended sleep amount, he told me. To do so, “the panel reviewed and evaluated 5,314 scientific articles on sleep over a 12-month period.”

After examining the literature, the panel concluded that “sleeping six or fewer hours per night is inadequate to sustain health and safety in adults, and [they] agreed that seven or more hours of sleep per night is recommended for all healthy adults.”

Perhaps the most interesting aspect of the recommendations is that they don’t place an upper limit on the amount of sleep. Nine hours is often cited as the maximum amount of time an adult should sleep, yet these new guidelines state that it’s okay for adults to sleep more if needed.

I asked Kushida why the new recommendations do away with the nine-hour sleep limit. Simply put, he said: “Sleeping more than nine hours per night on a regular basis may be appropriate for young adults, individuals recovering from sleep debt, and individuals with illnesses.”

The take-home message is that adults can be healthy on seven hours of sleep each night, but this amount of rest is not ideal. It’s better for adults to sleep more if possible, especially when they’re young, sleep deprived or ill.

Previously: Exploring the history and study of sleep with Stanford’s William DementStanford docs discuss all things sleepBBC study: Oh, what a difference an hour of sleep makes, Study shows seniors sleep better than younger adultsExploring the effect of sleep loss on health and What are the consequences of sleep deprivation?
Photo by Craig Sunter

Behavioral Science, Health and Fitness, Obesity, Public Health, Sleep

How insufficient sleep can lead to weight gain

How insufficient sleep can lead to weight gain


I don’t think I’ve ever met a person who hates sleep and can’t wait to get less of it. Yet, even though most people want more sleep and know it’s important for their health, few people get as much shut-eye as they need. If you’re one of the many who needs a bit more motivation to get to bed earlier, a recent BeWell@Stanford article on how sleep can affect your weight may do the trick.

In the Q&A, sleep expert Emmanuel Mignot, MD, PhD, director of the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine, explains why and how insufficient sleep can increase your risk of weight gain:

It is very clear that if you’re not sleeping enough, you’re putting yourself at risk for increasing your weight.  If you sleep less than six hours a night, you’re likely to have a higher BMI (body mass index). Longitudinal data — and the evidence is quite strong — shows that if you sleep more over time, you’ll lower your BMI, which correlates with weight reduction.

In the first centuries of human life on earth, if humans weren’t sleeping they were probably looking for food or fleeing a predator. Not sleeping enough was a sign that we were in danger or that we were under stress. When we are sleep deprived, we feel hungry. Data indicates that if you sleep less, you eat more, and it disrupts your hormones. This problem is magnified in today’s world because food is too available!

Mignot also discusses the top reasons why people sleep so little, the importance of naps, and how being sleep-deprived skews our perception of doing and performing well. “[W]e have to make sure we don’t burn the candle at both ends, Mignot said. “Sleeping brings creativity, productivity and the ability to perform at a higher level.”

The piece is a quick, and informative, read.

Previously: Exploring the history and study of sleep with Stanford’s William Dement“Father of Sleep Medicine” talks with CNN about what happens when we don’t sleep wellStanford doc gives teens a crash course on the dangers of sleep deprivation, Narcoleptic Chihuahua joins Stanford sleep researcher’s family and More evidence linking sleep deprivation and obesity
Photo by Goodiez

Neuroscience, Sleep, Stanford News, Videos

Exploring the history and study of sleep with Stanford’s William Dement

Exploring the history and study of sleep with Stanford's William Dement

The Good Stuff, a playlist-based online show, kicked off a week-long series about sleep with an interview with well-known sleep researcher William Dement, MD, PhD, who many refer to as the “father of sleep medicine.”

It’s surprising how new the field of sleep research is. As host Matt says about the discovery of rapid eye movement during sleep in the 1950s, “We developed the atom bomb before we noticed people’s eyes were moving while they slept?” Dement was the first to find that we sleep during REM sleep as a medical student at the University of Chicago. He later went on to describe the five stages of sleep as well as to study sleep disorders and the effects of sleep deprivation.

Dement is amusing and charming in the interview, and I feel like I got a glimpse into why Dement’s Sleep and Dreams class at Stanford is so popular.

Part two of the series – which addresses the question “Why do we sleep?” and features Dement and Clete Kushida, MD, PhD, medical director of the Stanford Sleep Medicine Center – was posted today, and parts three and four will be posted later this week.

Previously: “Father of Sleep Medicine” talks with CNN about what happens when we don’t sleep well, Stanford doc gives teens a crash course on the dangers of sleep deprivation, William Dement: Stanford Medicine’s “Sandman”, Stanford docs discuss all things sleepThanks, Jerry: Honoring pioneering Stanford sleep research and An afternoon with bedheads and Deadheads

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