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Autoimmune Disease, Immunology, Public Health, Research, Sleep, Stanford News

Cause of 2009 swine-flu-vaccine association with narcolepsy revealed?

Cause of 2009 swine-flu-vaccine association with narcolepsy revealed?

syringesBack in 2001, in the wacko cinematic tour de farce “Rat Race,” British actor Rowan Atkinson – a.k.a. the iconic “Mr. Bean” – put a humorous face on narcolepsy, a rare, chronic, incurable and lifelong sleep disorder that can strike at any time, even in the heat of a foot race.

In 2009, narcolepsy suddenly became, for a time, not quite so rare.

The swine flu pandemic sweeping the world that year was no joke. In the United States alone, the H1N1 strain of influenza virus responsible for that pandemic resulted in 274,304 hospitalizations and 12,469 deaths, as mentioned in our news release on a just-published study in Science Translational Medicine.

There probably would have been far more hospitalizations and deaths had not several vaccines tailored to that particular influenza strain been rushed to the market. Two vaccines in particular — Focetria, manufactured by Novartis, and Pandemrix, made by GlaxoSmithKline — are credited with saving a lot of lives in Europe. But there was a dark side. As our news release notes:

Populations that had been immunized with GlaxoSmithKline’s Pandemrix vaccine showed an increase in narcolepsy, but those immunized with Novartis’ Focetria did not.

That’s not news; it’s been known for some time. But the findings in the new study, whose senior author is Stanford neuroimmunologist Larry Steinman, MD, may explain why.

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Behavioral Science, Global Health, In the News, Public Health, Research, Sleep, Technology

Electricity access shortens sleep, study shows

Electricity access shortens sleep, study shows

Radium_Dial_UVGrowing up, my engineer father always told me to move my flowery glow-in-the-dark clock farther from my bedside. “You’re nuts, Dad,” I would respond, equating his concern with his conviction that he was dropped off by aliens in the New Mexican desert in 1947.

But now it turns out he may have had a point (although I’m still quite sure he came from a hospital in Pennsylvania, not a spaceship).

A new study published in the Journal of Biological Rhythms has shown that access to artificial light at night has shortened the amount of time we sleep each night. A recent University of Washington release describes the study:

The researchers compared two traditionally hunter-gatherer communities (in Argentina) that have almost identical ethnic and sociocultural backgrounds, but differ in one key aspect – access to electricity…

In their usual daily routines, the community with electricity slept about an hour less than their counterparts with no electricity. These shorter nights were mostly due to people who had the option to turn on lights and go to bed later, the researchers found. Both communities slept longer in the winter and for fewer hours in the summer.

This is the first study to examine differences in communities, rather than relying on artifically manipulating light in a laboratory.

“In a way, this study presents a proxy of what happened to humanity as we moved from hunting and gathering to agriculture and eventually to our industrialized society,” said lead author Horacio de la Iglesia, a University of Washington biology professor. “All the effects we found are probably an underestimation of what we would see in highly industrialized societies where our access to electricity has tremendously disrupted our sleep.”

So douse those lights, turn off the TV, push back your glowing clock, and embrace the dark — with a nice, long snooze.

Previously: New recommendation: Adults need at least 7 hours of sleep each nightMobile devices at bedtime? Sleep experts weigh in and Can adjusting your mobile device’s brightness help promote better sleep?
Via Medical News Today
Photo by Arma95

Health and Fitness, Research, Sleep

Jogging vs. chasing after your kids: Which one will help you sleep better?

Jogging vs. chasing after your kids: Which one will help you sleep better?

playgroundLast weekend, I raced after my toddler around the park for an afternoon and was shocked that my fitness tracker showed I walked the equivalent of 3.5 miles. Exhausted, I decided to count the mother-son outing as fulfilling my daily fitness requirement. But new research shows that when it comes to reaping the full health benefits of exercise, my park play date may not be the optimal form of physical activity.

As most of us know, scientific evidence shows that regular exercise can help us manage weight, improve mental health and mood, boost brain power, strengthen bones and muscles and reduce our risk of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and some cancers. Research has also suggests that individuals who clock at least 150 minutes of physical activity a week sleep better and are more alert during the day.

But a University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine study found that forms of exercise such as running, yoga, biking are associated with better sleep habits than housework or child-care activities. To better understand how various forms of physical activity affect sleep, researches analyzed data on nearly 43 adults from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and calculated the relationship between 10 different types of activities and the typical amount of sleep. According to a university release:

Compared to those who reported that they did not get physical activity in the past month, all types of activity except for household/childcare were associated with a lower likelihood of insufficient sleep. To assess whether these effects are just a result of any activity, results were compared to those who reported walking as their main source of activity. Compared to just walking, aerobics/calisthenics, biking, gardening, golf, running, weight-lifting and yoga/Pilates were each associated with fewer cases of insufficient sleep, and household/childcare activity was associated with higher cases of insufficient sleep. These results were adjusted for age, sex, education level, and body mass index.

“Although previous research has shown that lack of exercise is associated with poor sleep, the results of this study were surprising,” said Grandner. “Not only does this study show that those who get exercise simply by walking are more likely to have better sleep habits, but these effects are even stronger for more purposeful activities, such as running and yoga, and even gardening and golf. It was also interesting that people who receive most of their activity from housework and childcare were more likely to experience insufficient sleep – we know that home and work demands are some of the main reasons people lose sleep.”

Researchers will present their findings this week at SLEEP 2015, the 29th annual meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies LLC.

Previously: Can regular exercise improve your quality of sleep?, Superathletes sleep more, says Stanford researcher, The high price of interrupted sleep on your health and Why your sleeping habits may be preventing you from sticking to a fitness routine
Photo by eyeliam

In the News, Public Health, Research, Sleep

New recommendation: Adults need at least 7 hours of sleep each night

New recommendation: Adults need at least 7 hours of sleep each night

17376155493_6588ac3dcc_zHow much sleep is enough, and is it possible to sleep too much? Until recently, there wasn’t much consensus on sleep guidelines for adults. Now, a new set of recommendations agreed upon by a team of sleep experts helps put these questions to rest: Adults need a minimum of seven hours of sleep each night, preferably more.

These new recommendations, published yesterday in the journal SLEEP (subscription required), were developed by 15 sleep experts in a consensus panel assembled by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society. One of the panelists was Clete Kushida, MD, PhD, medical director of the Stanford Sleep Medicine Center, and I reached out to him to learn more about their work.

The goal of the panel was to take stock of existing studies on sleep and use the information to come to a consensus on a recommended sleep amount, he told me. To do so, “the panel reviewed and evaluated 5,314 scientific articles on sleep over a 12-month period.”

After examining the literature, the panel concluded that “sleeping six or fewer hours per night is inadequate to sustain health and safety in adults, and [they] agreed that seven or more hours of sleep per night is recommended for all healthy adults.”

Perhaps the most interesting aspect of the recommendations is that they don’t place an upper limit on the amount of sleep. Nine hours is often cited as the maximum amount of time an adult should sleep, yet these new guidelines state that it’s okay for adults to sleep more if needed.

I asked Kushida why the new recommendations do away with the nine-hour sleep limit. Simply put, he said: “Sleeping more than nine hours per night on a regular basis may be appropriate for young adults, individuals recovering from sleep debt, and individuals with illnesses.”

The take-home message is that adults can be healthy on seven hours of sleep each night, but this amount of rest is not ideal. It’s better for adults to sleep more if possible, especially when they’re young, sleep deprived or ill.

Previously: Exploring the history and study of sleep with Stanford’s William DementStanford docs discuss all things sleepBBC study: Oh, what a difference an hour of sleep makes, Study shows seniors sleep better than younger adultsExploring the effect of sleep loss on health and What are the consequences of sleep deprivation?
Photo by Craig Sunter

Behavioral Science, Health and Fitness, Obesity, Public Health, Sleep

How insufficient sleep can lead to weight gain

How insufficient sleep can lead to weight gain

SnackNap

I don’t think I’ve ever met a person who hates sleep and can’t wait to get less of it. Yet, even though most people want more sleep and know it’s important for their health, few people get as much shut-eye as they need. If you’re one of the many who needs a bit more motivation to get to bed earlier, a recent BeWell@Stanford article on how sleep can affect your weight may do the trick.

In the Q&A, sleep expert Emmanuel Mignot, MD, PhD, director of the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine, explains why and how insufficient sleep can increase your risk of weight gain:

It is very clear that if you’re not sleeping enough, you’re putting yourself at risk for increasing your weight.  If you sleep less than six hours a night, you’re likely to have a higher BMI (body mass index). Longitudinal data — and the evidence is quite strong — shows that if you sleep more over time, you’ll lower your BMI, which correlates with weight reduction.

In the first centuries of human life on earth, if humans weren’t sleeping they were probably looking for food or fleeing a predator. Not sleeping enough was a sign that we were in danger or that we were under stress. When we are sleep deprived, we feel hungry. Data indicates that if you sleep less, you eat more, and it disrupts your hormones. This problem is magnified in today’s world because food is too available!

Mignot also discusses the top reasons why people sleep so little, the importance of naps, and how being sleep-deprived skews our perception of doing and performing well. “[W]e have to make sure we don’t burn the candle at both ends, Mignot said. “Sleeping brings creativity, productivity and the ability to perform at a higher level.”

The piece is a quick, and informative, read.

Previously: Exploring the history and study of sleep with Stanford’s William Dement“Father of Sleep Medicine” talks with CNN about what happens when we don’t sleep wellStanford doc gives teens a crash course on the dangers of sleep deprivation, Narcoleptic Chihuahua joins Stanford sleep researcher’s family and More evidence linking sleep deprivation and obesity
Photo by Goodiez

Neuroscience, Sleep, Stanford News, Videos

Exploring the history and study of sleep with Stanford’s William Dement

Exploring the history and study of sleep with Stanford's William Dement

The Good Stuff, a playlist-based online show, kicked off a week-long series about sleep with an interview with well-known sleep researcher William Dement, MD, PhD, who many refer to as the “father of sleep medicine.”

It’s surprising how new the field of sleep research is. As host Matt says about the discovery of rapid eye movement during sleep in the 1950s, “We developed the atom bomb before we noticed people’s eyes were moving while they slept?” Dement was the first to find that we sleep during REM sleep as a medical student at the University of Chicago. He later went on to describe the five stages of sleep as well as to study sleep disorders and the effects of sleep deprivation.

Dement is amusing and charming in the interview, and I feel like I got a glimpse into why Dement’s Sleep and Dreams class at Stanford is so popular.

Part two of the series – which addresses the question “Why do we sleep?” and features Dement and Clete Kushida, MD, PhD, medical director of the Stanford Sleep Medicine Center – was posted today, and parts three and four will be posted later this week.

Previously: “Father of Sleep Medicine” talks with CNN about what happens when we don’t sleep well, Stanford doc gives teens a crash course on the dangers of sleep deprivation, William Dement: Stanford Medicine’s “Sandman”, Stanford docs discuss all things sleepThanks, Jerry: Honoring pioneering Stanford sleep research and An afternoon with bedheads and Deadheads

Health and Fitness, In the News, Sleep, Videos

“Father of Sleep Medicine” talks with CNN about what happens when we don’t sleep well

"Father of Sleep Medicine" talks with CNN about what happens when we don't sleep well

Dement - smallA good night’s sleep is often the first thing to go when we have an important work deadline or health issue. I know this from firsthand (and recent!) experience: I let a foot injury kept me up until 4 a.m. today even though I know that cheating sleep – or getting a poor night of sleep – is bad for my health.

But is skimping out on sleep now and again really that bad? As Chief Medical Correspondent Sanjay Gupta, MD, and Stanford sleep expert William Dement, MD, PhD, explain in a recent CNN feature: yes. When we rest, our bodies go to work, Gupta explains: “When your head hits the pillow, your body doesn’t shut down. It uses that time to heal tissue, strengthen memory, even grow.”

Dement, who founded the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine in the 1970s and has devoted his career to understanding sleep, has lots of experience with patients who miss out on these benefits because they don’t sleep well – due to obstructive sleep apnea. (The disorder, he says, affects 24 percent of adult males in the U.S.) In the piece, he and Gupta discuss the risk factors, such as excess weight and large tonsils, linked to sleep apnea and what can be done to alleviate the problem.

If you have a few minutes, this video is worth a watch. Dement makes his first appearance at the 2.5-minute mark.

Previously: Stanford doc gives teens a crash course on the dangers of sleep deprivationWilliam Dement: Stanford Medicine’s “Sandman”Stanford docs discuss all things sleep, Why untreated sleep apnea may cause more harm to your health than feeling fatigued and What are the consequences of sleep deprivation?
Photo, which originally appeared in Stanford Medicine, by Lenny Gonzalez

In the News, Neuroscience, Research, Sleep, Stanford News

Stanford researcher’s work, which clarifies role of brain activity during sleep, featured on NPR

Stanford researcher's work, which clarifies role of brain activity during sleep, featured on NPR

ParviziMuch to my delight, I heard the voice of Josef Parvizi, MD, PhD, on NPR yesterday afternoon. He was discussing the results of his latest study, which showed that the brain’s activity during sleep is far from random.

“There is something that’s going on in a very structured manner during rest and during sleep,” Parvizi told NPR. “And that will, of course, require energy consumption.”

A Shots blog entry accompanying the segment describes the findings:

The team saw activity in two widely separated brain areas known to be involved in episodic memories. And the activity was highly coordinated — suggesting the different brain regions were working together to answer the questions…

“What we found,” he says, “was that the same nerve cells that were activated to retrieve memories… have a very coordinated pattern of noise.”

This explains, in part, why the brain consumes 20 percent of the body’s energy, although it constitutes only 2 percent of its weight. There are more details on the study in our press release.

Previously: New findings on exactly why our “idle” brains burn so much fuel, The brain whisperer: Stanford neurologist talks about his work, shares tips with aspiring doctors and How epilepsy patients are teaching Stanford scientists more about the brain

In the News, Mental Health, Research, Sleep

The importance of screening soldiers for sleep problems to combat mental-health conditions

The importance of screening soldiers for sleep problems to combat mental-health conditions

Watching over

A new report from the RAND Corporation suggests that treating military members’ sleep disturbances early on may be an important step in preventing serious mental-health conditions, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and traumatic brain injury.

The two-year multi-method study examined sleep-related policies and programs across the U.S. Department of Defense and surveyed almost 2,000 veterans from various branches of the military to evaluate their sleep habits. The findings emphasized the negative effects of poor sleep on soldiers’ mental health, daytime impairment and perceived operational readiness; and it outlined interventions for helping identify and prevent sleep problems for service members.

The Huffington Post reports:

The researchers recommended that the military improve screening for sleep disturbance, and develop guidelines for doctors on how to identify and treat sleep disorders in the military. Apps on mobile phones might be one new way to identify and monitor sleep problems so they do not become chronic and debilitating, the researchers said.

Although the new report focused on activity-duty troops, studies show that sleep problems are often missed in veterans as well, [Wendy Troxel, PhD, co-author of the report] said, so there is also a need to develop guidelines for treating this population. In a previous survey of 3,000 veterans, 74 percent had symptoms of insomnia, but only 28 percent had talked with their doctor about it, Troxel said.

The researchers also recommended improving policies and programs to educate military personnel about the importance of sleep, and provide guidance on how to help military members get better sleep.

Previously: Study shows benefits of breathing meditation among veterans with PTSD, The promise of yoga-based treatments to help veterans with PTSD and Using mindfulness therapies to treat veterans’ PTSD
Photo by DVIDSHUB

In the News, Pediatrics, Sleep, Stanford News, Videos

Stanford doc gives teens a crash course on the dangers of sleep deprivation

Stanford doc gives teens a crash course on the dangers of sleep deprivation

Numerous studies, including a big one published in Pediatrics earlier this year, have shown that adolescents are getting less sleep than ever before. But most teens are unlikley unaware of the dangers of sleep deprivation – and that’s something that a group of Stanford clinicians is trying to change. Rafael Pelayo, MD, with the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine, and colleagues recently gave a “crash course” on sleep, and the importance of getting enough, to students at nearby Menlo-Atherton High School. ABC7 captured the story in the video above.

Previously: Talking about teens’ “great sleep recession”, With school bells ringing, parents should ensure their children are doing enough sleeping, Study shows poor sleep habits as a teenager can “stack the deck against you for obesity later in life”, What are the consequences of sleep deprivation? and Want teens to eat healthy? Make sure they get a good night’s sleep

Stanford Medicine Resources: