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Obesity, Parenting, Pediatrics, Research, Sleep

Study shows poor sleep habits as a teenager can “stack the deck against you for obesity later in life”

Study shows poor sleep habits as a teenager can "stack the deck against you for obesity later in life"

11386276_c148dfd9bd_zNew research examining the effect of sleeplessness on weight gain in teenagers over time offers strong evidence that inadequate sleep may increase the risk of obesity.

In the study, researchers at Columbia University and the University of North Carolina pored over health information from the the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health on more than 10,000 Americans ages 16 and 21. In addition, details about individuals’ height, weight and sleep habits were collected during home visits in 1995 and 2001.  According to a release, results showed:

Nearly one-fifth of the 16-year-olds reported getting less than six hours of sleep. This group was 20 percent more likely to be obese by age 21, compared to their peers who got more than eight hours of sleep. While lack of physical activity and time spent watching television contributed to obesity, they did not account for the relationship between sleeplessness and obesity.

“Lack of sleep in your teenage years can stack the deck against you for obesity later in life,” says [Columbia researcher Shakira Suglia, ScD]. “Once you’re an obese adult, it is much harder to lose weight and keep it off. And the longer you are obese, the greater your risk for health problems like heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.”

“The message for parents is to make sure their teenagers get more than eight hours a night,” adds Suglia. “A good night’s sleep does more than help them stay alert in school. It helps them grow into healthy adults.”

Previously: Want teens to eat healthy? Make sure they get a good night’s sleepProlonged fatigue and mood disorders among teensMore evidence linking sleep deprivation and obesityStudy shows link between lack of sleep and obesity in teen boys and Study shows lack of sleep during adolescence may have “lasting consequences” on the brain
Photo by Adrian Sampson

From August 11-25, Scope will be on a limited publishing schedule. During that time, you may also notice a delay in comment moderation. We’ll return to our regular schedule on August 25.

Aging, Mental Health, Research, Sleep, Stanford News

Stanford researcher examines link between sleep troubles and suicide in older adults

Stanford researcher examines link between sleep troubles and suicide in older adults

Chassériau painting - smallAfter nights spent tossing and turning, I’m grumpy. The world becomes darker, slower and smaller.

That’s why I wasn’t terribly surprised to learn that sleep-deprived older adults are more likely to kill themselves, the results of a study published Aug. 13 in JAMA Psychiatry. Lead author Rebecca Bernert, PhD, instructor of psychiatry and behavioral science and her team examined data from a pool of 14,456 adults older than 65 between 1981 and 1991. They then probed the sleep patterns of 20 people who died by suicide with those of 400 similar individuals.

They found that participants with impaired sleep had a 1.4 percent greater chance of death by suicide than participants who slept well. “This is important because sleep disturbances are highly treatable and arguably less stigmatizing than other suicide risk factors,” Bernert commented in a press release.

Bernert and her team plan to work to develop potential interventions through two ongoing clinical trials.

What did surprise me about the findings was the prevalence of suicide deaths in older adults, particularly among older men: In fact, white men over 65 have a rate of 31 deaths by suicide per 100,000, much higher than the general population rate of 13 or so per 100,000.

Regardless, any number of suicides is too high, a belief Bernert reiterates emphatically.

“Suicide is preventable,” Bernert said. “But the interventions for suicide prevention are alarmingly scarce.”

That’s why for Bernert, the suicide net recently approved for the Golden Gate Bridge is a no-brainer. She recently joined the board of directors of the Bridge Rail Foundation, the nonprofit formed to advocate for the net. “This is a very effective way to prevent suicides,” she said.

More than 1,600 people have died by suicide at the bridge; a similar number of deaths due to any other reason would have necessitated public intervention decades ago, she said.  She attributed the delay, in part, to the powerful stigma that surrounds suicide.

Bernert urged others to learn about suicide by visiting the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, or, if in crisis, to call 1-800-273-TALK to reach a 24-hour help line.

Becky Bach is a former park ranger who now spends her time writing, exploring, or practicing yoga. She’s currently a science writing intern in the medical school’s Office of Communication & Public Affairs.

Previously: Stanford’s Keith Humphreys on Golden Gate Bridge suicide prevention: Get the nets, CDC report highlights the dangers of sleep deprivation and Sleep deprivation may increase young adults’ risk of mental distress, obesity
Painting by Théodore Chassériau via Wikipedia Commons

From August 11-25, Scope will be on a limited publishing schedule. During that time, you may also notice a delay in comment moderation. We’ll return to our regular schedule on August 25.

Medical Apps, Sleep, Technology

Can sleep trackers help you get a better night’s rest?

Can sleep trackers help you get a better night's rest?

As the number of self-tracking gadgets grows, many people are beginning to experiment with monitoring lifestyle habits in an effort to improve their health. In fact, seven in ten American adults say they track at least one health indicator, according to data from the Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. But there has been some concern about the accuracy of such technology.

A recent CBS News segment took a closer look at the effectiveness of sleep trackers and outlined the differences in information collected by the devices and data collected by sleep specialists in a clinical setting. Stanford sleep expert Michelle Primeau, MD, also commented, “The reason why these devices are so good is [using them] puts greater emphasis on sleep.”

Previously: Why sleeping in on the weekends may not be beneficial to your health, The high price of interrupted sleep on your health, Exploring the benefit of sleep apps and Designing the next generation of sleep devices

Public Health, Research, Sleep

Why sleeping in on the weekends may not be beneficial to your health

Why sleeping in on the weekends may not be beneficial to your health

tired_072214Many of us, myself included, use the weekends to pay off the sleep debt we accrued during the work week. However, excessive sleeping can often leave us feeling more fatigued. A piece published today on Wired Science examines this phenomenon and discusses why clocking extra hours of shut-eye doesn’t necessarily benefit our health. Nick Stockton writes:

Oversleeping feels so much like a hangover that scientists call it sleep drunkenness. But, unlike the brute force neurological damage caused by alcohol, your misguided attempt to stock up on rest makes you feel sluggish by confusing the part of your brain that controls your body’s daily cycle.

Your internal rhythms are set by your circadian pacemaker, a group of cells clustered in the hypothalamus, a primitive little part of the brain that also controls hunger, thirst, and sweat. Primarily triggered by light signals from your eye, the pacemaker figures out when it’s morning and sends out chemical messages keeping the rest of the cells in your body on the same clock.

Scientists believe that the pacemaker evolved to tell the cells in our bodies how to regulate their energy on a daily basis. When you sleep too much, you’re throwing off that biological clock, and it starts telling the cells a different story than what they’re actually experiencing, inducing a sense of fatigue. You might be crawling out of bed at 11am, but your cells started using their energy cycle at seven. This is similar to how jet lag works.

The article goes on to explain that past research has shown that, “If you’re oversleeping on the regular, you could be putting yourself at risk for diabetes, heart disease, and obesity.”

Previously: The high price of interrupted sleep on your health, Examining how sleep quality and duration affect cognitive function as we age, What are the consequences of sleep deprivation? and BBC study: Oh, what a difference an hour of sleep makes
Photo by Stephen Poff

Parenting, Sleep, Women's Health

What other cultures can teach us about managing postpartum sleep deprivation

What other cultures can teach us about managing postpartum sleep deprivation

New_mom_072114Prior to becoming a mom, I felt fully confident that caring for a newborn would be less demanding than, or at least equal to, the physically grueling trainings from my college soccer days or my sleepless year of graduate school. But I soon learned that both of these experiences paled in comparison to the exhaustion I encountered after the arrival of my 8-pound-plus bundle of joy. So I was interested to read a recent Huffington Post blog entry from the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine examining how mothers in other countries cope with postpartum sleep deprivation.

In the entry, Mara Cvejic, MD, a neurologist at the University of Florida and former sleep medicine fellow at Stanford, notes that although sleep deprivation can profoundly affect cognitive function and mood, the brain of a postpartum mom is actually growing. She writes:

… despite all the formidable evidence of sleep deprivation in the everyday person, the scientific evidence of what happens to the postpartum brain is positively astounding — it thrives. A study published by the National Institutes of Health in 2010 actually shows that a mother’s brain grows from just 2-4 weeks to 3-4 months post delivery without any significant learning activities. The gray matter of the parietal lobe, pre-frontal cortex, hypothalamus, substantia nigra, and amygdala all form new connections and enlarge to a small degree. The imaging study confirms what animal studies have shown in the past — that these brain regions responsible for complex emotional judgment and decision-making actually bulk up with use. Rationale to the study shows that mothers who have positive interactions with their offspring — soothing, nurturing, feeding, and caring for them — are performing a mental exercise of sorts. Their learned coping skills in the face of novel child-rearing actually muscularize their brain.

She goes on to outline how new moms from Bulgaria to Sweden, and everywhere in between, turn to “hammocks, spa treatments, hired help, warm foods, arctic cradles, and cardboard” to cope with a lack of sleep. Personally, I’m in favor of Americans adopting this Malaysian tradition:

Food and warmth are also a focus of the Malaysian confinement of pantang. Steeped in the belief that the women’s life force is her fertile womb, she undergoes a 44-day period of internment to focus on relaxation, hot stone massage, lulur (full body exfoliation), herbal baths, and hot compresses. Typically a bidan, what can only be described as a live-in midwife and nanny combined, is hired to attend on the new mother. This is sometimes a family member, such as her mother or mother-in-law.

Previously: The high price of interrupted sleep on your health, What are the consequences of sleep deprivation? and Study: Parents may not be as sleep-deprived as they think
Photo by sean dreilinger

Parenting, Public Health, Research, Sleep

The high price of interrupted sleep on your health

The high price of interrupted sleep on your health

dad_baby_nap_time

As the mother of a 10-month-old, I’m constantly answering the question: Is your son sleeping through the night? And, much to my dismay, I have to repeatedly answer, “No.” So I was interested, and considerably alarmed, to read about new findings showing that interrupted sleep could be as harmful to your physical health as a lack of sleep.

A Time article published today describes the study and the Tel Aviv University researchers’ results:

Students slept a full eight-hours one night followed by a night of interrupted sleep in which they received four phone calls directing them to complete a brief computer exercise before returning to bed. The morning after both nights, the volunteers completed tasks to measure their attention span and emotional state — results proved that just one night of interrupted sleep had negative effects on mood, attention span and cognitive ability.

[Lead researcher Avi Sadeh, PhD,] believes that several nights of fragmented sleep could have long-term negative consequences equivalent to missing out on slumber altogether. “We know that these effects accumulate and therefore the functional price new parents — who awaken three to ten times a night for months on end — pay for common infant sleep disturbance is enormous,” he said in a statement.

In addition to parents with young children, the findings are applicable to people in certain age groups that experience fragmented sleep, as well those with jobs where frequent night wakings are common.

Previously: Stanford expert: Students shouldn’t sacrifice sleep, What are the consequences of sleep deprivation? and Study: Parents may not be as sleep-deprived as they think
Photo by Christina Spicuzza

Aging, Neuroscience, Sleep, Videos

Examining how sleep quality and duration affect cognitive function as we age

Examining how sleep quality and duration affect cognitive function as we age

We all feel better, and can think more clearly, after a good night’s rest. But new research underscores the importance of sleep quality and duration during middle age to stave off cognitive decline.

The study (subscription required) examines data compiled as part of the long-term Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), which is funded by a joint agreement of the National Institutes of Health and the World Health Organization. The project began in 2007 and involves more than 30,000 individuals aged 50 and older across China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa.

Among the key findings is that middle-aged or older people who get six to nine hours of sleep a night think better than those sleeping fewer or more hours, and that excessive sleep is equally damaging as too little sleep. In the above video, researchers discuss how despite cultural, environmental and economical differences, study results showed strong patterns relating to gender, sleep quality and cognitive function.

Via PsychCentral
Previously: What are the consequences of sleep deprivation? and Experts discuss possible link between sleep disorder and dementia

Health and Fitness, Obesity, Sleep

Why your sleeping habits may be preventing you from sticking to a fitness routine

Why your sleeping habits may be preventing you from sticking to a fitness routine

sleep_06.03.14New research suggests that a later bedtime is associated with a person spending more time sitting during the day and being less motivated to exercise.

The study involved a group of more than a hundred healthy adults with a self-reported sleep duration of at least six and a half hours. Researchers measured sleep variables over the course of a week using wrist actigraphy along with sleep diaries. Participants completed questionnaires about their physical activity and attitudes toward exercise. According to an American Academy of Sleep Medicine release, study results showed:

…that later sleep times were associated with more self-reported minutes sitting, and sleep timing remained a significant predictor of sedentary minutes after controlling for age and sleep duration. However, people who characterized themselves as night owls reported more sitting time and more perceived barriers to exercise, including not having enough time for exercise and being unable to stick to an exercise schedule regardless of what time they actually went to bed or woke up.

“We found that even among healthy, active individuals, sleep timing and circadian preference are related to activity patterns and attitudes toward physical activity,” said principal investigator Kelly Glazer Baron, PhD, associate professor of neurology and director of the Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program at the Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University in Chicago, Illinois. “Waking up late and being an evening person were related to more time spent sitting, particularly on weekends and with difficulty making time to exercise.”

In their conclusion, researchers suggested that sleep habits – particularly those of adults who are less active – be taken into consideration as part of exercise recommendations and interventions.

Previously: Expert argues that for athletes, “sleep could mean the difference between winning and losing”, Ask Stanford Med: Cheri Mah responds to questions on sleep and athletic performance, A slam dunk for sleep: Study shows benefits of slumber on athletic performance and Want to be like Mike? Take a nap on game day
Photo by Becky Wetherington

Pediatrics, Sleep

How sleep benefits those with a rare neurological disease

How sleep benefits those with a rare neurological disease

In the latest Huffington Post blog entry from the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine, a pediatric neurologist highlights a rare neurological disease that’s characterized by an improvement of symptoms after sleep. Mara Cvejic, MD, shares the dramatic story of a young patient, writing:

As a sleep physician today, Jane’s face still haunts me — but in a good way. The miracles of sleep are too numerous for the scope of this article, but there is plenty of undisputed evidence to show that healthy sleep improves our mood, our heart, our ability to eat healthy, to exercise, and perform at our best during the day at work or school. It is even linked to lower cancer rates. But can it take away what appears to be Parkinson’s disease and make a little girl walk? Oddly, that answer is yes. Jane had Segawa’s disease.

Read on for the full story.

Previously: Stanford center launches Huffington Post blog on the “very mysterious process” of sleep

In the News, Research, Sleep

Sleep: More important than ever?

Sleep: More important than ever?

A headline today caught my eye: “It’s Time to Pay Attention to Sleep, the New Health Frontier.” (Since installing a sleep-tracking app on my phone, I’ve been playing with different bed times, forms of exercise and other factors to measure their effects on sleep time and quality.) Anyway, the piece, on Time.com, explains why sleep’s importance to health is more serious than many of us really acknowledge. And it offers this bit of historical perspective on why now is the time to pay attention:

According to a 2013 Gallup survey, 40% of Americans get less than the recommended seven to eight hours a night. While the typical person still logs about 6.8 hours of sleep per night, that’s a drop from the 7.9 Americans were getting in the 1940s.

Previously: Exploring the benefit of sleep appsSleep on it: The quest for rest in the modern hospital, Mobile devices at bedtime? Sleep experts weigh in and Stanford doc talks sleep (and fish) in new podcast

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