on December 10th, 2014 No Comments
If I were to go back to school for a PhD, I think I’d study telomeres. Telomeres, the protective caps at the end of each chromosome, shrink with aging and other stressors leaving an organism vulnerable to a various disorders and cancer.
So, telomere fan that I am, I was thrilled to sit in on a recent Psychiatry & Behavior Sciences Grand Rounds talk at Stanford featuring Elizabeth Blackburn, PhD. A professor of biology and physiology at the University of California, San Francisco, Blackburn won the Nobel Prize in 2009 for her work on telomeres.
During the event, she gave the packed auditorium a whirlwind overview of telomere biology. Blackburn explained to attendees that telomere length is affected by both genes and the environment, and that some folks just start out with longer ones. Telomeres are maintained by an enzyme called telomerase. Slashing the amount of telomerase can cause early, immune dysfunction, cancer and diabetes. Some genetic telomere troubles manifest as disorders such as aplastic anemia or pulmonary fibrosis.
In general, telomere length correlates with what Blackburn called a “health span,” or duration of time someone stays healthy.
Recently she and colleagues measured telomere length in 100,000 people of all ages, a project they needed to develop a special robot to complete. They found that length of telomeres decreases into age 75. Then, it curves up to 95, accounting for the longevity of individuals with long telomeres. And yes, older women tend to have longer telomeres than older men.