In an unusual collaboration, officials from the health-care and nuclear industries met last July to discuss each field's similarities and differences between four topic areas, including diagnostic and prognostic technologies and human factors that affect risk and reliability. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation recently released a 120-page monograph detailing the lessons learned during the tw0-day workshop.
Today's issue of Inside Stanford Medicine includes a Q&A with David Gaba, MD, professor of anesthesia and the associate dean for immersive and simulation-based learning at the School of Medicine, discussing his participation in last year's meeting and what health-care providers can learn from the nuclear industry. He says:
One big one is the need for standard operating procedures, where possible, which also retain flexibility as needed. A major spinoff of this principle, used extensively in nuclear power, is to provide graphically enhanced written protocols for emergency situations. It is long recognized that nuclear power operators cannot remember everything they need to know in managing an adverse event in a nuclear plant — memory is too fallible. Thus, the use of written procedures is a mainstay in this setting. Health care has long depended largely on the individual skill and memory of physicians and nurses. Protocols and checklists or emergency manuals were decried as cheat sheets or cribs. We now know that the best people use these kinds of supports — not because they are stupid but because that is the best way to get the best results in tough situations. My lab and other colleagues at Stanford have been working for some time on written cognitive aids and emergency manuals for anesthesia professionals. These have now been disseminated to all the anesthetizing locations in Stanford's hospitals and those of its close affiliates. This lesson has clearly come from the nuclear industry and from others such as aviation.
Another lesson from the nuclear industry is the importance of the safety culture in an organization. When the organization favors throughput so heavily that people cut corners on safety, or when personnel are afraid to speak up when they see something unsafe, the risk climbs.
Something near and dear to my heart is the utility of simulation for training of skilled professionals. My lab's development of simulators and simulation-based curricula in health care was triggered by knowing a little bit about how they are used in aviation and other industries like nuclear power. But I actually had no idea, until this workshop, just how much simulation is required for nuclear power operators. They spend six weeks doing their usual shifts in the control room, and the seventh week is spent in training simulations. All year round, no matter how much prior experience they have. Health care is just scratching the surface in simulation compared to that, but at least we have started our way down a similar road.
Previously: Sully Sullenberger talks about patient safety