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Applied Biotechnology, Bioengineering, Medical Education, Stanford News, Videos

An online film festival for medtech inventors

An online film festival for medtech inventors

biodesign-process

The Stanford Biodesign program recently posted 296 short education videos on medical technology innovation. From needs finding through business planning, it offers entrepreneurs hours of useful advice on developing medical products.

This video library, which was launched with the second edition of the Biodesign textbook, is free to all. Its well-designed online interface makes it easy to access the advice that medtech innovators need, when they need it.

To create the video library, Biodesign hired filmmakers from both inside and outside of Stanford to capture the essence of the 2013-14 Biodesign fellowship program. During this ten-month program, multidisciplinary teams undergo a process of sourcing clinical needs, inventing solutions and planning for implementation of a business strategy. The program’s track record for bringing new medical devices and technologies to patients is impressive: Biodesign fellows have founded more than 30 companies in the last 14 years.

Each three- to four-minute video features interviews with faculty, fellows, CEOs, investors and alumni who have gone on to launch companies. A few of my favorites are:

The Biodesign video library, which was supported by the Walter H. Coulter Foundation, is an extension of the program’s mission — to help train the next generation of leaders in biomedical technology innovation. While the Stanford-based Biodesign program admits only 12 full-time postgraduate fellows a year, now these lessons-learned can be shared with medtech entrepreneurs around the globe. Just B.Y.O.P. (Bring your own popcorn.)

Previously: A medical invention that brings tears to your eyesBiodesign fellows take on night terrors in children, Stanford Biodesign Program releases video series on the FDA systemHeart devices get at mobile makeover
Illustration from Cambridge University Press

Applied Biotechnology, Bioengineering, Cancer, Genetics, Research, Stanford News

Minuscule DNA ring tricks tumors into revealing their presence

Minuscule DNA ring tricks tumors into revealing their presence

cool minicirclesAn animal study just published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows how, in the not-distant future, doctors may be able to not only detect tumors early in humans, but also monitor the effectiveness of cancer drugs in real time, guide clinical trials of new drugs, and even screen entire populations of symptom-free people for nascent tumors that could have otherwise slipped under the radar.

The potential is huge. And the principal investigator, Sam Gambhir, MD, PhD, is credible: He chairs Stanford’s radiology department, directs the Canary Center at Stanford for Cancer Early Detection and has authored or co-authored nearly 600 peer-reviewed research publications.

From my news release about the study:

Imagine: You pop a pill into your mouth and swallow it. It dissolves, releasing tiny particles that are absorbed and cause only cancerous cells to secrete a specific protein into your bloodstream. Two days from now, a finger-prick blood sample will expose whether you’ve got cancer and even give a rough idea of its extent. That’s a highly futuristic concept. But its realization may be only years, not decades, away.

The key to early cancer detection lies in finding valid biomarkers: substances whose presence in a person’s blood or urine flags a probable tumor. (High blood levels of the molecule known as PSA, for example, can signify prostate cancer.) But although various tumor types indeed secrete characteristic substances into the blood, these same substances typically are made in healthy tissues, too, albeit usually in smaller amounts. So a positive test result for, say, PSA doesn’t necessarily mean the person has cancer. Contrariwise, a small tumor just may not secrete enough of the trademark substance to be detectable.

Gambhir’s team appears to have found a way to force any of numerous tumor types to produce a biomarker whose presence in the blood unambiguously signifies cancer, because no adult tissues – cancerous or otherwise – would normally be making it. This particular substance is a protein naturally present in human embryos as they’re forming and developing, but absent in adults.

The scientists designed a genetic construct, called a DNA minicircle, that contains a single gene coding for the telltale substance. DNA minicircles are tiny, artificial, single-stranded DNA rings about 4,000 nucleotides in circumference – roughly one-millionth as long as the strand that you’d get if you stretched the DNA in all 23 chromosomes of the human genome end to end.

Gambhir and his colleagues rigged their minicircles so that this sole gene would be “turned on” only inside cancer cells. (For more details on how to do this, please see my release.) They injected the minicircles into mice who had small tumors and mice who didn’t. Within 48 hours, a simple blood test indicated the presence of the biomarker in the blood of mice with tumors, but not in the blood of the tumor-free mice.The bigger the tumor volume, the more of the biomarker in the blood.

The technique will likely apply to a broad range of cancers, and can possibly be modified to help pinpoint budding tumors’ location in the body.

Previously: Nano-hitchhikers ride stem cells into heart, let researchers watch in real time and weeks later, Nanoparticles home in on human tumors growing in mice’s brains, increase accuracy of surgical removal and Nanomedicine moves one step closer to reality
Photo by Jim Strommer

Bioengineering, Ethics, Fertility, Genetics, In the News, Parenting, Pregnancy

And baby makes four? KQED Forum guests discuss approval of three-parent IVF in UK

And baby makes four? KQED Forum guests discuss approval of three-parent IVF in UK

newborn feet Scope BlogLast week, the U.K. House of Commons voted to legalize a controversial in vitro fertilization technique called mitochondrial donation, popularly known as the “three-parent baby” technique. The technique is intended for mothers who have an inherited genetic defect in their mitochondria – the fuel compartments that power our cells – and can help them from passing on the incurable disease that often entails years of suffering and ends in premature death.

Doctors replace the DNA from a donor egg with the mother’s DNA, use sperm from the father to fertilize it, then implant it into the mother’s uterus via IVF technology. The donor egg’s cytoplasm contains defect-free mitochondria and DNA from both parents. Proponents say the technique gives parents with mitochondrial disease the chance to have disease-free children, but critics say it brings us one step closer to the reality of genetically modified “designer babies.”

On Friday, Stanford law professor and biotechnology ethicist Hank Greely, JD, was among the guests on KQED’s Forum broadcast to discuss the issue. He’s in favor of the procedure, noting that when looking at genetic modifications, “the purpose, the nature, [and] the safety” should be considered. “There are some things that I think shouldn’t be done,” he said, adding that “things like this, which gives women who have defective mitochondrial DNA their only chance to have genetic children of their own… if the safety proves up… seems to be a good use.”

Previously:  Daddy, mommy and ? Stanford legal expert weighs in about “three parent” embryos and Extraordinary Measures: a film about metabolic disease
Photo by Sean Drelinger

Applied Biotechnology, Bioengineering, Ophthalmology, Stanford News, Videos

A medical invention that brings tears to your eyes

A medical invention that brings tears to your eyes

dry-eye-implantMore than 20 million Americans suffer from dry eye, a painful condition where a personal’s lacrimal glands don’t create enough tears to lubricate the surface of the eye.

But relief is around the corner for these sufferers – a tiny implantable device that stimulates natural tear production on a long-term basis is currently in clinical trials. The device increases tear volume by delivering micro-electrical pulses to the lacrimal gland. It’s inserted into the mucus lining of the sinus cavity or under the skin beneath the eyebrow. Tear delivery rates can be adjusted manually with a wireless controller. (You can watch a video of this device producing tears, below.)

This clever invention is the brainchild of bioengineer and former Stanford Biodesign fellow Michael Ackermann, PhD, who says he spent a good part of his boyhood in Louisville, Kentucky, taking apart things like VCRs, radios and weed-whackers.

“My parents wanted me to be a doctor, but it was very clear from a young age that I was going to be an engineer,” said Ackermann.

He’s now at the helm of Oculeve, a 20-person startup dedicated to helping people with dry-eye. Ackermann’s tale of how he took one crazy idea and turned it into a product that has the potential to help millions of people is featured in the latest issue of Inside Stanford Medicine.

More than one person’s story, it’s another example of the efficacy of the Stanford Biodesign training program, whose fellows have started 36 medtech companies and filed more than 200 patents, all of which have reached 250,000-plus patients.

Previously: Crying without tears unlocks the mystery of a new genetic disease, Instagram for eyes: Stanford ophthalmologists develop low-cost device to ease image sharing and Stanford-developed eye implant could work with smartphone to improve glaucoma treatments
Photo and video by Michael Ackermann

Applied Biotechnology, Bioengineering, Biomed Bites, Cancer, Imaging, Technology, Videos

Beam me up! Detecting disease with non-invasive technology

Beam me up! Detecting disease with non-invasive technology

Here’s this week’s Biomed Bites, a feature appearing each Thursday that introduces readers to Stanford’s most innovative biomedical researchers.

Star Trek fans rejoice! Stanford radiologist Sam Gambhir, MD, PhD, hopes that someday he’ll be able to scan patients using a handheld device — similar to the one used by Bones in the popular sci-fi series — to check their health.

“Our long-term goals are to be able to figure out what’s going on in each and every one of you cells anywhere in your body by essentially scanning you,” Gambhir said in the video above. “We’ve been working on this area for well over three decades.”

This is useful because it will help doctors diagnose diseases such as cancer months or even years before the symptoms become apparent, Gambhir said.

And these advances aren’t light-years away. “Many of the things we’re doing have already started to move into the hospital setting and are being tested in patients. Many others will come in the years to follow,” he said.

Gambhir is chair of the Department of Radiology. He also directs the Molecular Imaging Program and the Canary Center for Cancer Early Detection.

Learn more about Stanford Medicine’s Biomedical Innovation Initiative and about other faculty leaders who are driving biomedical innovation here.

Previously: Stanford partnering with Google [x] and Duke to better understand the human body, Nano-hitchhikers ride stem cells into heart, let researchers watch in real time and weeks later and Developing a new molecular imaging system and technique for early disease detection

Applied Biotechnology, Bioengineering, Global Health, Microbiology, Stanford News

Foldscope beta testers share the wonders of the microcosmos

Foldscope beta testers share the wonders of the microcosmos

Foldscopes-TanzaniaChristmas came early for citizen-scientists who received the first batch of Foldscope build-your-own paper microscope kits from Stanford’s Prakash Lab over the last several months. These beta testers have begun sharing a variety of fascinating images, videos, tips and ideas on the Foldscope Explore website.

From this site, you can watch Foldscope videos of fluid pulsing through the brain of a live ant or the suction mechanism of a fly foot. One citizen scientist analyzes the structural differences between his brown and gray hair follicles. Another provides a tutorial on FBI bird-feather forensics. (Germophobes might want to skip the close-ups of a face mite or the fungus that grows in half-eaten yogurt cartons.)

Half the fun of receiving a Foldscope kit is the unboxing and building process, which has been captured in YouTube videos by Foldscope fans Christopher and Eric.


lens-mounterEach kit includes parts for building two microscopes, multiple lenses, magnets that attach a Foldscope to a smartphone camera lens, slide mounts, and a battery-powered light module. This allows users to view magnified images with the naked eye or projected on a wall. Photos or videos of Foldscope images can easily be captured and shared via smartphones.

For those of you who haven’t received your Foldscopes yet, rest assured that those who signed up on the beta test site will receive them soon. It’s taking longer than anticipated to build and ship 50,000 microscopes. (The gadget on the right was custom-designed to insert the tiny spherical ball lenses into the magnetic smartphone-mounting platform.)

For Foldscope updates, sharing and inspirations, bookmark Foldscope Explore.

Previously: Stanford bioengineer develops a 50-cent paper microscopeStanford microscope inventor invited to first White House Maker Faire, The pied piper of cool science tools and Free DIY microscope kits to citizen scientists with inspiring project ideas
Photo of Foldscope co-inventor Jim Cybulski and Tanzanian children building foldscopes by Manu Prakash; photo of lens mounting gadget by Kris Newby

Bioengineering, Cardiovascular Medicine, Clinical Trials, Research, Science, Stanford News

Using "nanobullets" for good – not evil

Using "nanobullets" for good - not evil

14858598815_b572bddbf9_zMy husband, a big science fiction fan, perked up the other day when I told him I was writing a medical science story about nanotechnology. Apparently, nanotechnology – the study and application of extremely small things – has long been big in the world of science fiction. There, authors have used it to create lots of cool-sounding phantasmagorical stuff like the “nanoprobes” used by the Borg in the movie Star Trek: The Next Generation to assimilate individuals into their collective.

I’m not sure how the fictional nanoprobe was supposedly built, but in my real-life story on the modern day use of nanotechnology to design better methods for heart disease treatment, I do describe the creation of “nanobullets” by Stanford researchers. And it’s pretty cool.

Jayakumar Rajadas, PhD and his colleagues detailed their work in a scientific paper published this month in the journal Biomaterials. Their idea was to create a new and improved delivery system for the delicate peptide apelin into the heart as a treatment for hypertrophic heart disease, which I discuss in the piece:

In a treatment model similar to giving insulin to diabetes patients, physicians have attempted to treat these heart conditions with doses of apelin. The therapeutic agent is delivered intravenously through to the cardiovascular tissue, but due to its short half-life — the drug is quickly eliminated from the blood plasma — the success of this treatment has been limited.

Rajadas considered the possibility for improving the delivery system of the peptide using nanotechnoloy because it has been used for the past 10 years to stabilize therapeutic agents in the body and target them to specific tissues, he said. In this case, the idea was to protect the quickly degrading apelin peptides with large, stable molecules to help transport them to their target organ – the heart:

The research team developed a novel technique to increase the stability of the fragile apelin peptides by protecting them with a lipid cover that Rajadas calls the ‘Trojan Horse’ method of delivery. The liposome ‘nanocarriers’ encapsulates the apelin and sneaks it through the blood to the heart tissue.

The resulting apelin “nanobullets,” as the researchers refer to them, were then delivered through the blood system to the cardiovascular tissue of mice with induced hypertrophic heart conditions. The theory was that the apelin would not be released until it was near the heart tissue.

Researchers then tried it out, shooting the nanobullets into the hearts of mice with hypertrophic heart disease. They delivered two shots over a 14-day period. Results showed that symptoms dramatically improved in the mice that received the shots with the apelin nanobullets when compared to mice shot with saline treatments or even treatments of apelin not protected with the liposome covering.

“Apelin in this form could eventually be used as treatment for humans delivered as a shot rather than intravenously as in the past,” Rajadas told me. “The idea is that regular monthly or bimonthly shots could lesson symptoms.”

Previously: Stanford team develops nanotech-based microchip to diagnose Type 1 diabetes
Photo by NMK Photography

Big data, Bioengineering, NIH, Research, Science Policy, Stanford News

$23 million in NIH grants to Stanford for two new big-data-crunching biomedical centers

$23 million in NIH grants to Stanford for two new big-data-crunching biomedical centers

More than $23 million in grants from the National Institutes of Health – courtesy of the NIH’s Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) initiative – have launched two Stanford-housed centers of excellence bent on enhancing scientists’ capacity to compare, contrast and combine study results in order to draw more accurate conclusions, develop superior medical therapies and understand human behaviors.

Huge volumes of biomedical data – some of it from carefully controlled laboratory studies, increasing amounts of it in the form of electronic health records, and a building torrent of data from wearable sensors – languish in isolated locations and, even when researchers can get their hands on them, are about as comparable as oranges and orangutans. These gigantic banks of data, all too often, go unused or at least underused.

But maybe not for long. “The proliferation of devices monitoring human activity, including mobile phones and an ever-growing array of wearable sensors, is generating unprecedented quantities of data describing human movement, behaviors and health,” says movement-disorders expert Scott Delp, PhD, director of the new National Center for Mobility Data Integration to Insight, also known as the Mobilize Center. “With the insights gained from subjecting these massive amounts of data to  state-of-the-art analytical techniques, we hope to enhance mobility across a broad segment of the population,” Delp told me.

Directing the second grant recipient, the Center for Expanded Data and Retrieval (or CEDAR), is Stanford’s Mark Musen, MD, PhD, a world-class biomedical-computation authority. As I wrote in an online story:

[CEDAR] will address the need to standardize descriptions of diverse biomedical laboratory studies and create metadata templates for detailing the content and context of those studies. Metadata consists of descriptions of how, when and by whom a particular set of data was collected; what the study was about; how the data are formatted; and what previous or subsequent studies along similar lines have been undertaken.

The ultimate goal is to concoct a way to translate the banter of oranges and orangutans, artichokes and aardvarks now residing in a global zoo (or is it a garden?) of diverse databases into one big happy family speaking the same universal language, for the benefit of all.

Previously: NIH associate director for data science on the importance of “data to the biomedicine enterprise”, Miniature wireless device aids pain studies and Stanford bioengineers aim to better understand, treat movement disorders

Bioengineering, Biomed Bites, Neuroscience, Research, Videos

Deciphering "three pounds of goo" with Stanford neurobiologist Bill Newsome

Deciphering "three pounds of goo" with Stanford neurobiologist Bill Newsome

Thursday means it’s time for Biomed Bites, a weekly feature that highlights some of Stanford’s most compelling research and introduces readers to innovative scientists from a variety of disciplines. If you aren’t hooked on this series yet, you will be after hearing from this neuroscientist.

Stanford neurobiologist Bill Newsome, PhD, doesn’t invent new drugs, develop creative treatments or diagnose mysterious afflictions. He mostly uses moving dots to study vision. So it makes sense that even Newsome’s own mother asks the point of his research.

Newsome, who directs the Stanford Neuroscience Institute, fields the question with grace in the video above:

I  am interested in the brain as a biological organ that gives rise to intelligence. We study vision because we believe it’s going to give us certain cues how the brain actually works and understanding the mechanisms by which the brain produces behavior will help us understand all kinds of diseases of the brain… how thought and decision-making and memory and attention go wrong in diseases like schizophrenia, in diseases like depression.

It’s not about the dots. It’s about deciphering the brain, which Newsome calls “three pounds of goo” by gesturing toward his own goo-container. (It’s a well-known goo-container: Newsome also co-chairs the federal BRAIN Initiative). How does what you see influence what you do? What you think? What you don’t see?

Newsome has spent more than 40 years poking around in the brain and he knows it works much better than any of our most advanced attempts to replicate it. Think of all the applications for a machine that can not only see, but can also make decisions based on what it spots. But now, Newsome says, the best artificial intelligence vision systems are only as perceptive as a fly or an ant.

The notion is that if we can understand how real biological vision works, we can build artificial intelligence systems that can do vision much, much better than our current ones can… and we can improve our lives in many ways.

Basic bio it is, and basically very important.

Learn more about Stanford Medicine’s Biomedical Innovation Initiative and about other faculty leaders who are driving forward biomedical innovation here.

Previously: Even old brains can stay healthy, says Stanford neurologist, Marked improvement in transplant success on the way, says Stanford immunologist and Discover the rhythms of life with a Stanford biologist

Addiction, Bioengineering, Mental Health, Neuroscience, Stanford News, Stroke

Neuroscientists dream big, come up with ideas for prosthetics, mental health, stroke and more

Neuroscientists dream big, come up with ideas for prosthetics, mental health, stroke and more

lightbulbs

So there you are, surrounded by some of the smartest neuroscientists (and associated engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and lawyers) in the world, and you ask them to dream their biggest dreams. What could they achieve if money and time were no object?

That’s the question William Newsome, PhD, asked last year when he became director of the new Stanford Neurosciences Institute. The result is what he calls the Big Ideas in Neuroscience. Today the institute announced seven Big Ideas that will become a focus for the institute, each of which includes faculty from across Stanford schools and departments.

In my story about the Big Ideas,I quote Newsome:

The Big Ideas program scales up Stanford’s excellence in interdisciplinary collaboration and has resulted in genuinely new collaborations among faculty who in many cases didn’t even know each other prior to this process. I was extremely pleased with the energy and creativity that bubbled up from faculty during the Big Ideas proposal process. Now we want to empower these new teams to do breakthrough research at important interdisciplinary boundaries that are critical to neuroscience.

The Big Ideas are all pretty cool, but I find a few to be particularly fascinating.

One that I focus on in my story is a broad collaboration intended to extend what people like psychiatrist Robert Malenka, MD, PhD, and psychologist Brian Knutson, PhD, are learning about how the brain makes choices to improve policies for addiction and economics. Keith Humphreys, PhD, a psychiatry professor who has worked in addiction policy and is a frequent contributor to this blog, is working with this group to help them translate their basic research into policy.

Another group led by bioengineer Kwabena Boahen, PhD, and ophthalmologist E.J. Chichilnisky, PhD, are working to develop smarter prosthetics that interface with the brain. I spoke with Chichilnisky today, and he said his work develop a prosthetic retina is just the beginning. He envisions a world where we as people interface much more readily with machines.

Other groups are teaming up to take on stroke, degenerative diseases, and mental health disorders.

One thing that’s fun about working at Stanford is being able to talk with really smart people. It’s even more fun to see what happens when those smart people dream big. Now, they face the hard work of turning those dreams into reality.

Previously: This is your brain on a computer chip, Dinners spark neuroscience conversation, collaboration and Brain’s gain: Stanford neuroscientist discusses two major new initiatives
Photo by Sergey Nivens/Shutterstock

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