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Medical Education, SMS Unplugged

Why “looking dumb” in medical school isn’t such a bad thing

Why “looking dumb” in medical school isn’t such a bad thing

SMS (“Stanford Medical School”) Unplugged is a forum for students to chronicle their experiences in medical school. The student-penned entries appear on Scope once a week; the entire blog series can be found in the SMS Unplugged category.

hands in air - longerIf I had to choose one theme that has stood out in the first weeks of medical school, it would be this: questions, questions, and more questions. In the first class on our first day of medical school, our professor set the tone by laying down the requirement that we ask a minimum of ten questions before the lecture was over. Based on my experience in large undergraduate lectures, where questions were as rare as rain in Palo Alto, I naively thought this would be a challenge for us. To my surprise, we met the challenge and probably asked at least twenty questions in that first class alone.

This first day set the tone for the rest of our time together so far, and my class has quickly gained a reputation among the faculty for the volume of questions that we ask. It’s a common occurrence for a lecturer to be moving along smoothly, only to look up and see four or five hands in the air, of people waiting patiently to ask for clarifications, pose hypothetical situations, or simply admit that the last lecture slide was way too confusing. More than one class session has been derailed and run out of time because of our frequent interruptions. One of our professors memorably poked fun at us by hinting – not very subtly – that our class had no problem with “looking dumb” in front of our peers.

Given the amount of important information and interesting ideas that I’ve learned through my classmates’ questions, I’ve quickly come to feel that learning how to ask questions is an important part of my early medical training. However, this can be a difficult thing. By asking a question in public, you’re more or less admitting to everybody in the room that you didn’t know the answer; that you needed help from somebody else to get the information. Only certain learning environments – namely, with a close group of non-judgmental peers and willing professors – are conducive to this.

With that in mind, what will happen with our class as we move through our medical training? I’m hopeful that our willingness to ask questions will continue, along with the receptiveness of our teachers and mentors. As first-year medical students, we’re not expected to have a vast medical knowledge yet, so admitting “I don’t know” is relatively easy. But what will happen in a few years, when we reach the clinics and are expected to be able to put the knowledge from our first two years to use? Or more importantly, what will happen when we are fully trained physicians, and our patients expect us to have all the answers? When we don’t have the answers, will we be as willing to ask for help as we are now? As a patient, I would certainly hope that my physician would be willing to ask the right questions when needed. Because of this, I think our class can and should aspire to keeping the flood of questions coming.

Nathaniel Fleming is a first-year medical student and a native Oregonian. His interests include health policy and clinical research.

Image by Kaz

Events, History, Medical Education, Medical Schools, Stanford News

A trip down memory lane: Stories from the early days of the School of Medicine

A trip down memory lane: Stories from the early days of the School of Medicine

When Philip Pizzo, MD, came to interview for the position of dean of Stanford’s medical school in 2000 he stayed in a nearby hotel. Taking a cab each day to campus for interviews, Pizzo would ask the driver to take him to the School of Medicine. Not one driver knew where to go, recounted Drew Bourn, PhD, while leading a recent architectural tour of the School of Medicine.

At the time the dean’s office was buried in a courtyard of the Stone Building and hidden from street view. But now the medical school has a face, the stately Li Ka Shing Center for Learning and Knowledge, which will soon have a twin to the east. Within a decade or so, a new, matching building will replace the research building currently beside it.

This was just one of the many stories Bourn shared about the first medical school on the West Coast, which has its roots in Illinois, where physician Elias Samuel Cooper, MD, diced up cadavers of executed criminals to teach surgery.

The Gold Rush brought him west, and soon the Cooper Medical College sprouted up in San Francisco, before aligning with Stanford and moving south to the Farm in the 1950s.

Its first building was the current hospital, known as the Stone Building not for its construction material, but for its architect, Edward Durrell Stone, a famous midcentury architect who designed Radio City Music Hall, among many other national and international works.

Lest I steal all of Bourn’s best bits — including how Stone met an Italian fashion writer on a plane, and before landing convinced her to marry him — I’ll leave it to you to enjoy the experience on your own. Local readers: Bourn offers tours regularly — the next is Nov. 12 at 2 PM — free and open to all. All who want to spend an enjoyable hour learning, that is.

For more fun photos, check out the Stanford History Medical Center’s Flickr collection.

Previously: Stanford building houses one of the world’s largest medical simulation facilities, Stanford’s Clark Center, home to Bio-X, turns 10 and A new era in education at Stanford’s Medical School
Photos from Stanford History Medical Center

 

Emergency Medicine, Events, Imaging, Medical Education, Stanford News

Ultrasound has its day – and evangelists galore

Ultrasound has its day -  and evangelists galore

ULTRAfestUltrasound isn’t just for babies anymore.

“We use it for everything from head to toe and skin and organs,” emergency medicine instructor Laleh Gharahbaghian, MD, recently told writer Sara Wykes for an Inside Stanford Medicine story. “It’s become an essential tool at  the bedside we apply to immediately rule out — or rule in — medical conditions.”

That’s why Gharahbaghian and her colleagues are hosting ULTRAfest, a full day of ultrasound instruction open to all medical students on Oct. 18. Last year, more than 300 students from across the western United States attended.

Ultrasound uses sound waves that are too high pitched for our ears to detect. The waves bounce off material in the body, providing a glimpse inside.

ULTRAfest2What’s so great about ‘Sound (as Gharahbaghian calls it on her Twitter page)? It’s relatively cheap — new scanners start at $90,000 — non-invasive and portable. Ultrasound has also moved beyond mere diagnostics. For example, Stanford radiologist Pejman Ghanouni, MD, PhD, uses ultrasound to treat uterine fibroids.

Although the technology isn’t new, researchers are finding new uses for ultrasound. As detailed in that Inside Stanford Medicine piece:

More recently, the use of ultrasound has crossed into another part of the anatomy long thought to be immune to its imaging prowess: the lungs. In the air-filled environment of the lungs, the sound waves that are the basis of ultrasound have nothing to ping against. However, in lungs where disease has produced fluids, ultrasound has proven more accurate than a chest X-ray and faster than CT scan to diagnose common lung conditions, including pulmonary edema, pneumonia and pleural effusions.

Other doctors and medical students, including U-fest volunteer William White aren’t shy about touting ultrasound’s benefits: “I just fell in love with the technology, picking up a probe and looking into the body in real time.”

Previously: New technology enabling men to make more confident decisions about prostate cancer treatment, Listening to the stethoscope’s vitals, Plane crash creates unexpected learning environment for medical students 
Photos by Teresa Roman-Micek

Medical Education, SMS Unplugged

Escaping the medical school bubble

Escaping the medical school bubble

Hamsika at Castle Rock

SMS (“Stanford Medical School”) Unplugged is a forum for students to chronicle their experiences in medical school. The student-penned entries appear on Scope once a week; the entire blog series can be found in the SMS Unplugged category.

A few months ago, I read the following quote: “Don’t live the same year 75 times and call it a life.” For some reason, this quote got to me. This year is my 18th consecutive year as a student, and there are too many days that seem the same, where I’m caught in the tasks and obligations of school and extracurriculars and forget to take time out of the day just for myself.

Fortunately, I’m surrounded by classmates who are very much aware of the bubble but also skilled at disconnecting from the med school busyness. A couple weeks ago, I took a leaf out of their book, woke up at 5:30 AM, and joined four of my fellow classmates for a hiking trip at Castle Rock State Park.

Castle Rock is about a 45-minute drive from Stanford and filled with beautiful redwoods, moss-covered trees, and stunning views. Much of the group had to be back on campus at 1 PM for meetings and such (can’t escape the bubble forever!) so we chose to do a ~6-mile hike, giving us time to pause along the way whenever we felt like it.

There were moments when all of us were quiet, relishing the moist, woody smell of the forest and appreciating the absolute silence that surrounded us. Of course, most of the time, we were chatting it up. Despite the fact that all of us are together almost every day, taking the same classes and working together on group presentations that accompany our coursework, it felt like we hadn’t really talked in ages! During our three-hour hike, we bonded over so many different topics – where we wanted to live when we graduated from medical school, things we’ve struggled with this past year, our families, and so much more.

This isn’t the first time I’ve had a chance to escape into the wilderness with classmates. Last year, med school kicked off with a pre-orientation camping/backpacking trip called SWEAT (Stanford Wilderness Experience Active (Orientation) Trip). SWEAT was a 4-day, 3-night adventure, and, like this hike, was an incredible bonding experience – one that even included a few bear sightings.

The point of this entry is to 1) make it seem like I have a life outside of med school (Kidding! Kind of…), and 2) emphasize how important it is to take the time to do things you love and enjoy. One of the things I struggled the most with – both when I went to college and when I came to med school – was figuring out how I could incorporate the things I’ve always loved doing – dance, drawing, reading, etc. – into a life filled with classes, deadlines, and meetings. While the classes will soon come to an end, the deadlines and meetings and obligations certainly won’t. And that’s when I’ll make a conscious effort to traipse off to a dance class, a bookstore, or a hiking spot like Castle Rock.

Hamsika Chandrasekar is a second-year student at Stanford’s medical school. She has an interest in medical education and pediatrics.

Photo courtesy of Hamsika Chandrasekar

Medical Education, Medicine and Society, Neuroscience, Science, Stanford News

Studying science at Stanford is a dream come true for one California man

Studying science at Stanford is a dream come true for one California man

new grad students

Tawaun Lucas grew up in Compton, East LA, a city with a reputation – whether deserved or not – for producing gangsters, not neuroscientists. It’s a reputation Lucas just ignored.

A high-school athlete who dreamed of playing  in the NFL or going to the Olympics, the 22-year-old instead joined this year’s entering class of neuroscience graduate students at Stanford with a new set of aspirations.

Dreams change, Lucas explained me when I interviewed him for a story I wrote about the 135 new bioscience graduate students starting the fall semester at Stanford. As I describe in the story:

Lucas only changed his aspirations from sports to science after being sidelined by injuries his sophomore year at California State University-Northridge, where he was on a scholarship as a track athlete. But starting Stanford’s neurosciences PhD program is a dream come true, he said. “Stanford was always my first choice,” he said. “I applied to 12 schools.” When he got the acceptance call from Stanford, he said he nearly dropped the phone. “I almost teared up and cried,” he said. “It was surreal. I can’t even describe the experience.”

Lucas’s mother worked as a bus driver for the Long Beach school district. His dad was a maintenance worker. No one in his family went to college, and he wasn’t a particularly good student in high school, so the path to studying neuroscience at Stanford was an unexpected one. But programs for underrepresented minorities in the sciences helped him along the way, as did his own fascination with human behavior and the study of the brain:

His interest in science didn’t develop until his undergraduate years. He was living at home at the time with his parents, working as a bank teller while attending Cal State Northridge.  He began to turn his energies to academics when athletics was no longer an option. “Once I figured out what I wanted to do, I became focused,” he said. He chose to study psychology because the environment he grew up in had sparked his curiosity about human behavior. “I grew up in an urban area around some pretty crazy people who made some pretty weird decisions,” he said. “I began to wonder why do people, say, raised in Compton or Watts, for example, make different choices than someone raised in, say, Manhattan Beach? Is it socioeconomic? Psychological? Is there a genetic element?

Anthony Ricci, PhD, a professor of otolaryngology and member of the Stanford Neurosciences Institute, who played a role in encouraging Lucas to apply to Stanford and is part of an institution-wide effort to encourage diversity in the sciences, emphasized just how important diversity is to future advances in science:

“A person’s background is really important to how they think about a problem,” Ricci said. “If everyone were white, middle-class, Harvard-trained, they might think too much alike. Science needs people who think differently.”

Previously: First-year science graduate students enter brave new world and No imposters here: Stanford grad students reassured as they begin school
Photo by Norbert von der Groeben

Applied Biotechnology, Bioengineering, Events, Medical Education, Stanford News, Technology

Stanford physicians and engineers showcase innovative health-care solutions

Stanford physicians and engineers showcase innovative health-care solutions

scholar-poster

A “breathalyzer” that noninvasively determines if patients have unsafe levels of ammonia in their blood. The discovery of a previously approved drug that also fights the Dengue virus. A smartphone-based eye-imaging system that can be used to diagnose vision problems remotely.

These are a few of the 40-plus inventions and clinical solutions presented at the first annual Spectrum Innovation Research Symposium, held last Friday at the Stanford School of Medicine. The event demonstrated the power of bringing together teams of physicians, bioinformaticists and engineers to apply new technologies and ideas to challenging medical problems. Also showcased were budding physician-scientists supported by the Spectrum KL2 and TL1 clinical research training awards. (In the photo above, Colleen Craig, MD, an endocrinology fellow, describes a novel treatment that she’s developing for gastric-bypass patients who suffer from severely low blood sugar.)

The buzz is that it’s going to be a good year for health-care breakthroughs

Spectrum, the recipient of Stanford’s NIH Clinical and Translational Science Award, annually gives up to $50,000 to investigator teams for year-long projects in the areas of drug discovery, medical technologies, predictives/diagnostics, population health sciences and community engagement. This program also provides these teams with training and mentoring to help them move their ideas rapidly from bench to bedside and into the community.

“These modest pilot awards have been immensely successful in stimulating innovative ideas across the spectrum of translational research,” said Spectrum’s director, Harry Greenberg, MD. “They have lead to new inventions that promote individual’s health, new ways of improving the health of the populations and new efforts to assist our surrounding community on health issues.”

As this year’s grantees were rolling up their poster presentations, next year’s scholars were rolling up their sleeves to finish their 2014-15 Spectrum grant proposals, which are due in a few days.

It’s been a pivotal year in medical technology, with the launch of an unprecedented number of game-changing inventions, such as the Mini-ION, a $900 USB-powered DNA sequencer, and Apple HealthKit, a health-and-fitness dashboard and developer kit. In the coming year, these will provide Stanford scholars with amazing technology platforms from which to launch medical solutions that are better, faster and cheaper.

“We are in the middle of amazing biomedical innovation here in Silicon Valley,” said Atul Butte, MD, PhD, and faculty director of the diagnostics/predictives program. “Spectrum enables us to fund the earliest of early technologies, more risky than even the usual angel investments, but with higher potential impacts. In the end, this gets technologies to patients and families that much sooner.”

Because of this, anticipation among the grant-approval committee members at the symposium was high — the buzz is that it’s going to be a good year for health-care breakthroughs.

Previously: Spectrum awards innovation grants to 23 projects, Stanford awarded more than $45 million to spur translational research in medicine, As part of annual tradition, budding physician-scientists display their work, and New class of physician-scientists showcase research
Photo by Kris Newby

Medical Education, Medical Schools, Stanford News

Free online Stanford course examines medical education in the new millennium

Free online Stanford course examines medical education in the new millennium

Prober_092314At this year’s Stanford Medicine X, executive director Larry Chu, MD, announced the launch of a new group of initiatives that would expand the conference and “quicken the pace of changing the culture of health care.” In addition to continuing to build community, the Medicine X Academy will aim to use technology, the principles of design thinking, and a model of inclusivity to redefine medical education.

“We’re moving from talking to doing,” said Chu. “We want to move the conversation earlier into the education system so students begin to think differently about health care and [so we can] improve medical education with the input of all stakeholders.”

As part of the academy, Chu, Kyle Harrison, MD, clinical assistant professor at the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Hospital, and Nikita Joshi, MD, an academic fellow at Stanford, will begin teaching a massive open online course (MOOC) course titled “Medical Education in the New Millennium” this Thursday. Anyone can enroll in the class through Stanford OpenEdX. Additionally, it will be webcasted on the Medicine X website and live tweeted on the @StanfordMedX feed.

The eleven-week course will ask the fundamental question: What is the definition of medical education? Participants will explore a variety of topics including how to improve the educational experiences of today’s Millennial medical students and residents; how patients and caregivers can be active participants in their care teams; how MOOCs, social media, simulation and virtual reality change the face of medical education; and how to make learning continuous, engaging, and scalable in an age of increasing clinical demands and limited work hours.

Among the class guest lectures are Charles Prober, MD, senior associate dean for medical education at Stanford; Kirsten Ostherr, PhD, an English professor at Rice University and co-founder of the Medical Futures Lab; ePatient Britt Johnson; and medical and nursing students from Duke, Stanford and other universities.

As noted on the course website, the course is targeted not only towards medical students and educators but also patients, caregivers, and anyone who wants “to join a conversation about how to improve medical education.”

Previously: Medicine X aims to “fill the gaps” in medical educationRethinking the traditional four-year medical curriculum and A closer look at using the “flipped classroom” model at the School of Medicine
Photo of Charles Prober by EdTech Stanford University

Medical Education, Medical Schools, Mental Health, Stanford News, Surgery

New surgeons take time out for mental health

New surgeons take time out for mental health

rope webI spent a recent morning watching about 30 Stanford surgical residents take time off from their operating rooms to participate in a series of team-building games out on the alumni lawn on campus. These are busy, dedicated professionals who are passionate about their work, so getting them to take time off is hard. “I can tell you a surgical resident would rather be in the operating room than anywhere else on earth,” Ralph Greco, MD, a professor of surgery, told me as he sat on a nearby bench watching the residents play games.

In a story I wrote about the games, I describe how the Balance in Life program, which sponsored the day’s event, was founded following the suicide of a former surgical resident, Greg Feldman, MD. Greco, who helped build the program, was committed to doing whatever he could to prevent any future tragedies like Feldman’s, as I explain in the piece:

“The residency program was just rocked to its knees,” he said, remembering back to the death in 2010 of the much-loved mentor and role model for  many of the surgical residents and medical students at the time. Feldman died after completing his surgical residency at Stanford and just four months into his vascular surgery fellowship at another medical center. “It was a very frightening time,” Greco said. “Residents were questioning whether they’d made the right choices.”

Today, the Balance in Life program includes, among other thing, a mentorship program between junior and senior residents, group therapy time with a psychologist and a well-stocked refrigerator with free healthy snacks. Residents themselves, like Arghavan Salles, MD, who participated in the ropes course, plan and coordinate activities:

“Some people think this is kind of hokie,” said Salles, who was one of a group of residents who helped found the program along with Greco following Feldman’s death. “Surgery is a super critical field,” Salles said. She paused to instruct a blind-folded colleague: “Step left! Step left!” “You face constant judgment in everything you do and say,” she added. “Everyone is working at the fringes of their abilities. They’re stressed.”

While writing this story, my co-workers suggested I read a September editorial in the New York Times that brought the issue into sharp focus. Spurred by the suicides two weeks prior of two second-year medical residents who jumped to their deaths in separate incidents in New York City, Pranay Sinha, MD, a medical resident at Yale-New Haven Hospital wrote about the unique stresses of new physicians:

As medical students, while we felt compelled to work hard and excel, our shortfalls were met with reassurances: ‘It will all come in time.’ But as soon as that MD is appended to our names in May, our self-expectations skyrocket, as if the conferral of the degree were an enchantment of infallibility. The internal pressure to excel is tremendous. After all, we are real doctors now.

Pranay’s message was similar to the one promoted by Stanford residents during the games: The key to battling new physician stress is realizing that you are not alone, that your colleagues are there to support you. “It sounds touchy feely to say that we care,” Salles told me. “But at the end of the day, if we want to have better patient care, we need to take care of each other too.”

Previously: Using mindfulness interventions to help reduce physician burnout and A closer look at depression and distress among medical students
Photo by Norbert von der Groeben

Medical Education, Medical Schools, Stanford News, Videos

Stanford students design “enrichments” for lions, giraffe and kinkajou at the San Francisco Zoo

Stanford students design "enrichments" for lions, giraffe and kinkajou at the San Francisco Zoo

My job took me to the zoo.

It was a rather unorthodox assignment for a medical writer, but one of our faculty at Stanford medical school was teaching a rather unorthodox class at the San Francisco Zoo. A dozen Stanford sophomores signed up to spend two intensive weeks there learning about animal welfare and behavior and designing “enrichments” to make life more interesting for the lions, a giraffe and a kinkajou at the zoo.

These included a “Poop Shooter” to lob animal poop into the lion’s cage, a urine-soaked scratcher for a lone giraffe and a “Robo-Flower” to automatically dispense smoothies to the kinkajou, a tree-dwelling rainforest mammal that looks like a cross between a squirrel and a raccoon.

“Zoo animals have pretty good welfare already,” said Stanford’s Joseph Garner, PhD, an associate professor of comparative medicine who helped design and lead the class. “So it’s not about fixing things. It’s about how we can turn this animal on a little. How can we help the keepers manage the animal and improve the experience for guests.”

“It’s like if you lived in the same room your whole life. We want to change it up, keep it fresh and interesting – something novel,” said student Jennifer Ren.

For Floyd the giraffe, the students shook things up a bit by building a scratcher soaked in female giraffe urine to make it appealing to him. Instead of lurking in a corner of his paddock near the female enclosure, Floyd ventured out into his large pad to explore his new toy, where he was a lot more visible to zoo-goers.

“The giraffe is one of the largest and strongest animals on the planet, so building something that he is not going destroy in 30 seconds is a real challenge,” Garner said.

For the lions, the students adapted a conveyor-belt system to periodically shoot giraffe poop into the lion’s cage, where the male lion in particular found the aromatic pellets extremely interesting.

“Lions lie around all day watching and waiting. But when the zoo put the enrichment in, it was like somebody just flipped a switch,” Garner said. “The male lion was up and about and smelling and searching for the giraffe droppings, and performing all of this wonderful lion behavior.”

The students took their assignments very seriously, videotaping the animals’ responses and designing charts and graphs to measure the results, which they presented at a zoo ceremony last Friday in which they were celebrated for their contributions.

The students said they came away with a whole new perspective on zoos and wildlife behavior, as well as a gratifying sense of having designed something to improve the animals’ lives.

Previously: How horsemanship techniques can help doctors improve their art
Photo in featured entry box by Norbert von der Groeben

Medical Education, Medicine X, Stanford News

Lloyd B. Minor, Stanford medical school’s dean, shares five principles of leadership

Lloyd B. Minor, Stanford medical school's dean, shares five principles of leadership

Dean_MinorOne of the highlights of this past weekend’s Medicine X was a course – “Navigating Complexity and Change: Principles of Leadership” – taught by our own leader, Lloyd B. Minor, MD. I sat in on the thoughtful and robust discussion, which focused on five principles that Minor developed throughout his career as a scientist, surgeon and academic leader. Students in the class were a mix of ePatients, researchers, entrepreneurs, and physicians, including a neuroanesthesiologist at Yale School of Medicine.

The first principle that Minor introduced was listening and learning, which, he said “underlie success in everything.” He went on to say, “I think a lot of leadership problems and failures come about when leaders are not, first and foremost, good listeners.”

Listening to others in the organization articulate their core values and vision provides a cultural context and helps leaders avoid the pitfall of their viewpoint being seen as counter to the organization’s. It also allows leaders to better understand those who disagree with them, he said. Drawing on his recent experience transitioning from provost and senior vice president of academic affairs of Johns Hopkins University to dean of Stanford’s School of Medicine, Minor explained that holding town hall meetings with Stanford faculty, students and staff were crucial in order to engage the community in charting a vision. “Vision is a derivative from listening and learning,” he told the class.

The next principle Minor discussed was building diverse teams. “Successful organizations thrive on diversity, and building diverse teams is one of the most important responsibilities of a leader,” said Minor. He emphasized that racial, gender and socioeconomic diversity, and diversity of viewpoint, are equally essential. Master Class students were advised to identify their weaknesses and surround themselves with individuals who have different backgrounds and cultural contexts and who possess strengths that can compensate for those weaknesses. In addition, if leaders listen and learn from a diverse team that provides constant feedback then they’ll create more opportunities for collaboration.

Once leaders have built diverse teams, the third principle comes into play: empowering teams. “You need to demonstrate the type of team behavior that you want individuals to exemplify to the rest of the organization,” he said. “That will determine how effective those teams are and enable you to be a better leader.” Among Minor’s tenets for empowering teams are: establishing a system of equitable accountability, allowing people to realize and correct their mistakes, establishing incentives, recognizing individuals or teams’ successes, and developing skill sets.

Minor went on to discuss the principle of managing and leading, stressing the point that while management and leadership have different areas of focus, being an effective leader requires one to be capable in management. “There is nothing that will derail leadership faster than poor management,” he explained. Leaders must not only articulate an organization’s vision and core values and build diverse teams to carry out those actions, but respond in a timely fashion, communicate, organize and coordinate.

Minor closed out his talk by touching on transitions. “This is a principle that is often missed and one that often leads to bad consequences for the individual, as well as the organization,” he explained. Leaders need to take time to reflect on both their transition to subsequent roles and the future of the organization. He warned that failing to carve out time to do so could result the erosion of leaders’ physical and mental health and damage the organization. A common mistake that he spoke to students about is when leaders refuse to let go of their former role and try to do the same job in a new position. To make sure Minor himself remembered to abide by this principle during his transition to Stanford, his wife gave him a business card holder for his desk with a quote from Lord Chesterfield that reminds us that in order to “discover new oceans, you must have the courage to lose sight of the shore.”

More news about Stanford Medicine X is available in the Medicine X category. 

Previously: Stanford Medicine X 2014 kicks off todayCountdown to Medicine X: 3D printing takes shapeCountdown to Medicine X: Specially designed apps to enhance attendees’ conference experience and Countdown to Medicine X: How to engage with the “no smartphone” patient
Photo by Stanford Medicine X

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