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New test could lead to increase of women diagnosed with heart attack

12192161504_34544b2f38_zSimilar numbers of men and women come to the emergency room complaining of chest pain, and similar numbers of men and women die from heart disease each year (in fact, slightly more than half are women), so why are only half as many women being diagnosed with heart attacks?

A study recently published in the BMJ and funded by the British Heart Foundation suggests that the reason for the difference lies in the diagnostic methods: blood tests. Researchers at the University of Edinburgh found that if blood tests are administered with different criteria for each gender, women's heart attack diagnoses are much higher. Better tests could limit under-diagnosis and prevent women from dying or suffering from future heart attacks. (And women are more likely than men to die after suffering an attack; twice as likely in the few weeks afterward!)

Blood diagnostic tests measure the presence of troponin, a protein released by the heart during an attack. Previous research showed that men produce up to twice as much troponin as women, so Anoop Shah, MD, and fellow authors hypothesized that if different thresholds of troponin levels were used for men and women, it would correct the disparity.

The researchers administered two tests on patients complaining of chest pain, once using methods that are standard around the world, and then again using a highly sensitive troponin test and gender-specific thresholds. MNT reports:

When using the standard blood test with a single diagnostic threshold, heart attacks were diagnosed in 19% of men and 11% of women. However, while the high-sensitivity blood tests yielded a similar number of diagnoses in men (21%), the number of heart attack diagnoses in women doubled to 22%.

In addition, the researchers observed that participants whose heart attacks were only diagnosed by the high-sensitivity test with gender-specific diagnostic thresholds were also at a higher risk of dying or having another heart attack in the following 12 months.

This research included a little more than 1,000 subjects; the BHF is now funding a clinical trial on more than 26,000 patients to verify the results.

Photo by MattysFlicks

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