In another step along the path toward finding cures for deafness, Stanford scientists report they have discovered a subset of cells in the mammalian utricle, the inner ear structure that controls balance, that can regenerate into hair cells when damaged.
We rely on our inner ear sensory organs to hear and sense motion. Such functions require specialized hair cells to detect the vibrations of sound or motion. Once lost, hair cells needed for hearing do not regenerate and thus hearing loss is permanent, while those to sense motion can regenerate to a limited degree. Until now, the origin of these regenerated hair cells and the mechanisms that limit this process of regeneration in the utricle have not been clear. Here, we found two distinct populations of such hair cell progenitors in the neonatal mouse utricle, where they can regenerate lost hair cells. Unlike the utricle from older mice, the degree of regeneration and also cell division at this age are a lot more robust.
The study also provides an improved understanding of the molecular pathway that leads to this transformation, knowledge that could maybe one day be used to help researchers figure out how to artificially encourage hair cell renewal in humans.
Previously: Understanding hearing loss at the molecular level, New version of popular antibiotic eliminates side effect of deafness and Stanford chair of otolarnygology discusses future regenerative therapies for hearing loss