Here in California, the drought is plenty serious. Shortages mean short showers, brown lawns, empty reservoirs and fallow fields.
But in sub-Saharan Africa, drought spreads disease, including the still-rampant HIV virus. The phenomenon is more sociological than ecological: Slim harvests slash farmers' incomes, forcing them to find new ways to earn money. Some turn to sex, according to a new study in The Economic Journal.
As described in a recent article from Stanford's Center on Food Security and the Environment (FSE):
Analyzing data on more than 200,000 individuals across 19 African countries, the research team finds that by changing sexual behavior, a year of very low rainfall can increase local infection rates by more than 10 percent.
That means condoms and sex education aren't all that's needed to thwart the epidemic's spread, the study's authors say. Affected farmers also need economic support and alternatives to help them weather the dry period, without sacrificing their health.
"These are the people who really suffer when the rains fail, and who are forced to turn to more desperate measures to make ends meet," co-author Marshall Burke, PhD, a fellow at the FSE, said in the piece.
Previously: Spread of drug-resistant HIV in Africa and Asia is limited, Stanford research finds, Stanford study: South Africa could save millions of lives through HIV prevention and Changing the prevailing attitude about AIDS, gender and reproductive health in southern Africa
Photo by Jon Rawlinson